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The magic wand

Copyright 2005 Joseph H. Peterson

The use of the magic wand can be traced back to proto-Indo-European times, as shown by its appearance in both Zoroastrianism as well the early Hinduism.

Zoroastrianism and the Magi

The magi of the ancient world were the priesthood of the Zoroastrian religion. As Plato noted, magic (mageia) refers to "the Magian lore of Zoroaster" ( Alchibiades 1.122). The baresman (Phl. barsom), or sacred bundle of twigs (or "slender wands"), is a ritual implement which has played an important part in Zoroastrian religious practices since prehistoric times. According to Kotwal and Boyd, the baresman is an "ancient Indo-Iranian emblem of seeking the Holy", and it "establishes a connecting link between this getig [material] world and the menog [spiritual] realm. The barsom is, as it were, the conduit through which the archetypal principles and powers manifest their presence and receive the offerings." (A Persian offering, 1991, p. 6, 10; words in square brackets are mine). It is also an instrument through which one acquires the sacred power (op. cit. p. 23). Perhaps then it is also a conduit for channeling the power outwards, and thus is a prototypical 'magic wand'. The baresman is traditionally made of tamarisk trigs, although in modern times metal rods have been substituted.

Dino, a contemporary of Philip refers to the use of the barsom for divination, which is also supported by the Denkard. (Modi 1922, RCC, p. 280.)

A stick with nine knots is used during the nine-nights' purification (barashnom). The knots are barriers against pollution and evil influences. (Vd9.14, compare Key of Solomon Book 2, chapters 4, 5, and 13.)

In Zoroastrianism we also find the mace used. This is now referred to as gurz (from Avestan vazra, Sanskrit vajra.) It is used as a spiritual weapon to drive off evil.


5th-4th century B.C. gold plaque showing a magus holding the baresman

Egyptian, Greek, and Roman sources

The use of the baresman by the magi was well known to Greek writers and is mentioned by Strabo and Phoenix of Colophon (280 B.C.), cited in Athenaeus. The magic wand was also known among the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Like the Zoroasrian magi, the ancient Roman Flamines or fire-priests, also carried such bundles of twigs in their hands. (Modi RCC, 1922, p. 280).

Pliny and Apuleius both attest to their use. Homer (in the Odyssey 11.14ff) and Virgil both describe the archetypical sorceress, Circe, as using a magical wand. The relevant passage in Virgil was noted by Agrippa in his Occult Philosophy Book 1, chapter 41. It is also cited by Eliphas Levi Key of the Mysteries, part 4, chap 1.

Betz' collection of Greek and Demotic magical papyri has examples of spells which include the use of a wand or staff. The spell PGM I.42-195, for example has the magician "hold a branch of myrtle ... shaking it, [and salute] the goddess." (Betz, p. 5) Similarly PGM II.22, II.65 (Betz p. 13, 14)

Iamblichus

Iamblichus (c. A.D. 250-325), one of the more important Neoplatonic philosophers, discussed magic in general in his On the Mysteries. In it he mentions the prophetess holding a staff or wand, invoking the divinity. (Mysteries of the Egyptians, chapter 7.) Agrippa also cites this passage in OP3.48.

The Grimoires

Early manuscripts of magic (grimoires) have many references to the use and importance of the wand in western magic. There are two similar ritual implements commonly described in magical literature: The staff (Latin baculus or bacculus; Italian bastone; French Le baton, bâton) and the wand (Latin Virga or virgulam; Ital. verga; German Stäbchen; French: La verge; In French manuscripts this is sometimes called viere, baguette, baguette magique, baguete, or bagette, also translated as rod). The staff is more the size of a walking stick; the wand is smaller and tapered:

The staff and the wand from Ad. 10862 (the "Zecorbeni" manuscript), fol. 164v


According to the Key of Solomon (Book 2 chapter 8): "The staff should be of elderwood or cane, and the wand of hazel or nut tree, in all cases the wood being virgin, that is of one year's growth only. They should each be cut from the tree at a single stroke, on the day of Mercury (i.e. Wednesday), at sunrise. The characters shown should be written or engraved thereon in the day and hour of Mercury." (Mathers tr. revised by JHP)

The magical symbols for the staff and wand according to Ad. mss. 10862, fol. 122v


According to the Sworn Book of Honorius (Chap CXXXII), the magician's wand or staff is made of laurel or hazel, likewise of one year's growth ("magister tenens baculum lauri vel coruli illius anni..."). More details are provided in chapter CXXXIX: "But the wand should have four sides. On one side should be written 'Adonay'; on the second side 'Sabaoth'; on the third, 'Hiskiros'; on the fourth 'Emanuel.' On the middle of the wand, make the pentagon figure of Solomon, and where the wand is held, a cross, and thus it will be prepared for sacred and wonderful works." (My translation, not in Royal ms).

Very similar is the sceptrum (scepter) in manuscripts of the Pseudo-Bacon (Roger) treatise Thesaurus spirituum, which instructs that it should be of bay (laurel) wood, "neere as bigg as your arme at the hand and it must be just a cubit longe, and the barke taken off it." (Wellcome 110, fol. 8r).

Abognazar specifies two types of bâton are needed for magical operations: one for operations of Venus (made of elder), and another for all other operations calling for a bâton.

Bâton pour toutes les Opérations.

Bâton pour les Opérations de Venus.

In Clavicules du Roi Salomon par Armadel, Livre III (Lansdowne MS. 1202), the "key to the work" is a triangular wand made of hazel.

The Lesser Key of Solomon (Book 1: Goetia) recommends holding a hazel stick in the hand during the operation of Bileth, for upholding one's courage. This is based on Weyer "baculum corili" (hazel staff). The passage in Reginald Scot translates baculum as "bat", but it could mean rod, staff, or stick.

In Le Grand Grimoire the main ritual implement is called la baguette mystérieuse, ou la Verge Foudroyante (the mysterious wand, or blasting rod) "which causes the spirits to tremble; which God also used to arm his angel when Adam and Eve were driven out of the earthly paradise; wherewith, finally, he smote the rebellious angels, precipitating their ambitions into the most appalling gulfs by the power of this very rod -- of this rod which collects the clouds, disperses tempests, averts lightning, or precipitates each and all upon any portion of the earth at the pleasure of its director." (tr. Waite, BCM) It is made of "wild hazel which has never borne fruit; its length should be nineteen and a half inches" with a forked end and magnetized steel caps on the pointed ends.

According to Franz Bardon (1909-1958), one of the most important occultists and magicians of the twentieth century, "the most important aid in ritual magic is, and always will be, the magic wand."

Grillot de Givry ( Witchcraft, Magic, and Alchemy, p. 308) shows a magical operation which features a "wand of poplar-wood, 'half without bark'."

Summary of woods used for magical wands

Acacia According to Franz Bardon, "the wood of an oak or an acacia, too, is an excellent material for making a magic wand."
AlmondThis wood is specificed in the Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage. The wand of the magician may be made of any nut wood according to the Key of Solomon. According to Agrippa (OP1.26), almond and other woods of nut trees are associated with the planet Jupiter. Levi recommends the magic wand be made of almond or hazel.
Apple Sacred to Jupiter (Agrippa, OP1.26). The druidic wizard Mannanàn Mac Lir carried a wand of apple ( Peter Berresford Ellis, A Brief History of the Druids, New York, Carroll & Graf, 2002, p. 249.).
AshSacred to Jupiter (Agrippa, OP1.26). According to Franz Bardon, a magic wand made of ash is especially to be used in healing people. Yates recounts details of an Irish "fairy doctor" -- one whose mystical power is received from fairies -- who observed many traditional practices, including carrying a wand of ash during prayer.
Bay (See laurel.)
BeechSacred to Jupiter (per Agrippa, OP1.26).
Box According to the Key of Solomon box and oak have "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of Jupiter. According to MC this is a sacred tree associated with the zodiacal sign of Libra.
BuckthornSacred tree associated with the Zodiacal sign of Aquarius (MC).
Cane (L. arundo donax)The staff of the magician may be made of cane according to the Key of Solomon.
CedarAccording to the Key of Solomon cornel and cedar have "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of Mars.
ChestnutSacred tree associated with the Zodiacal sign of Leo (MC).
CornelAccording to the Key of Solomon cornel and cedar have "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of Mars.
CypressUsed to make a magic circle for the experiment of the Black Hen (Fr. poule noire, It. gallina nera) found in several grimoires.
DogwoodSacred to Jupiter (Agrippa, OP1.26). Sacred tree associated with the Zodiacal sign of Scorpio (MC).
EbonyEbony is named as the wood of Hermes in one ancient Greek spell (Faraone, p. 202.) This wood is specified by Trithemius in his treatise on invoking angels to appear in a crystal. The Egyptian king Nectanebus used a rod or wand of ebony along with magic formulae to animate models of his enemies and attack them. (Budge, 1930, p. 488; 1971, p. 92.) An Ebony wand is used in the Graeco-Egyptian spell PGM I.335 (Betz p. 12).
Elder or elderberry (L. sambucus)The staff of the magician may be made of elder according to the Key of Solomon. Grimorium Verum specifies a wand of elder should be used in preparing the parchment, and is also used in preparing the pentacles and magic rings. According to the method of Abognazar a special staff of elder is used for operations of Venus only. According to Franz Bardon, "the wand made of elder-wood, proves, on account of its analogy to Saturn, especially efficient when calling up or evoking elemental spirits and demons."
ElmSacred tree associated with the Zodiacal sign of Pisces (MC).
Fig, WhiteSacred to Jupiter (Agrippa, OP1.26).
HazelMultiple sources attest the use of Hazel for the magic wand, including the Key of Solomon, Weyer, Goetia, Grand Grimoire, and Levi. According to the Sworn Book of Honorius (Chap CXXXII), the magician's wand or staff is made of laurel or hazel. Per Agrippa, sacred to Mercury, and also to Jupiter (OP1.26 and OP1.29). According to MC this is a sacred tree associated with the zodiacal sign of Cancer. According to the Key of Solomon hazel has "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of Mercury. Grimorium Verum specifies wands of hazel and elder should be used in preparing the parchment. The Grand Grimoire includes a divining method using a hazel rod or wand. According to Bardon, "hazelnut or willow are to be used for a wishing-wand. The wishing-wand is a modification of the magic wand."
HollyHolly is the whitest of all woods, and has been used in making piano keys. It was considered sacred by the druids, and played a part in the magic of the Greeks and Romans. It was especially suitable for divination. In early Europe, holly and other thorny plants were believed to repel all evil spirits. (Gale, p. 2.) The same apotropaic properties were noted by Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE).
Holm-oak Sacred to Jupiter (per Agrippa, OP1.26). A rod of this material is used in the operation of the magic garters, according to Abognazar.
Horse chestnut Sacred to Jupiter, according to Agrippa (OP1.26).
JuniperAccording to the Key of Solomon juniper and pine "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of Saturn.
Laurel According to the Sworn Book of Honorius (Chap CXXXII), the magician's wand or staff is made of laurel or hazel. Wands of laurel are found in multiple spells in the Magical Papyri. Called "Apollo's holy plant of presage" and "Phoibos' mistress" (Betz pp. 15, 110, 112) A sprig of laurel held in the right hand is said to be a protective charm (PGM I, Betz op. cit. p. 10). Also used in Graeco-Egyptian spells PGM I.335, II.6, II.22 (Betz p. 12, 13). According to the Key of Solomon laurel has "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of the Sun. According to MC this is a sacred tree associated with the zodiacal sign of Gemini. On magical uses of laurel see also L. Deubner, Kleine Schriften zur Klassischen Altertumskunde (Königstein: Hain, 1982, p. 401-2.) According to Porphyry (On Images, fragment 8), laurel "is full of fire, and therefore hated by daemons."

According to Pseudo-Bacon, the magical scepter must be made of a bay (laurel) tree. (Ad. 36674, fol. 73r; Sloane 3850, fol. 98v; Wellcome 110, fol. 8r.)

MyrtleAccording to the Key of Solomon myrtle has "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of Venus. Marvin Meyer's book Ancient Christian Magic includes a spell which involves a branch of myrtle held in the right hand (p. 272). The use of a Myrtle branch is also found in the Graeco-Egyptian spell mentioned above (Betz, p. 5.) According to MC this is a sacred tree associated with the zodiacal sign of Taurus.
Oak Sacred to Jupiter, according to Agrippa. According to the Key of Solomon box and oak have "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of Jupiter. According to Franz Bardon, "the wood of an oak or an acacia, too, is an excellent material for making a magic wand."
OleumSacred tree associated with Jupiter, according to Agrippa, OP1.26.
OliveSacred to the Moon and Jupiter (Agrippa, OP1.24, OP1.26). Sacred tree associated with the Zodiacal sign of Aries (MC). Wands of olive are also found in the Greek Magical Papyri (e.g. Betz, p. 109.) According to Butler (p. 145) Casanova (1725-1798) used a magic wand made of olive wood, approximately 18 inches long.
Palm A twig of palm is held in the right hand during a ritual described in the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (T2). Sacred tree associated with the Zodiacal sign of Sagittarius (MC).
PearSacred to Jupiter (Agrippa, OP1.26). Sacred tree associated with the Zodiacal sign of Virgo (MC).
PineAccording to the Key of Solomon juniper and pine "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of Saturn. According to MC this is a sacred tree associated with the zodiacal sign of Capricorn.
PlumSacred to Jupiter (Agrippa, OP1.26).
PomegranateThis wood is also mentioned as acceptable for the baresman in Zoroastrian ritual.
Poplar Tree sacred to Jupiter, according to Agrippa. Grillot de Givry (Witchcraft, Magic & Alchemy, p. 308) shows a magical operation which features a "wand of poplar-wood, 'half without bark'."
QuinceThis wood is specified for the staff of the magician according to La Vera Clavicola del Re Salomone.
Rosewood Mathers included rosewood in his translation of the Key of Solomon, however this was a mistranslation of the French word "roseau" (another word for cane or reed).
Service treeSacred to Jupiter (per Agrippa, OP1.26).
TamariskZoroastrian magi
WalnutThe wand of the magician may be made of any nut wood according to the Key of Solomon
WillowAccording to the Key of Solomon willow has "some quality referring especially unto the spirits" of the Moon. According to Bardon, "hazelnut or willow are to be used for a wishing-wand. The wishing-wand is a modification of the magic wand.... In making magic wands willow twigs may also be used for any type, for the willow is a very good fluid condenser." Giordano Bruno's third image of Venus carries a willow wand (De Imaginum Compositione (1591) Book 2, ch 13.
Wormwood Used in Graeco-Egyptian spell PGM III.704 (Betz p. 36).
YewTraditionally considered a sacred tree among the Irish, the yew deeply rooted in Irish folklore. It has long been known to have toxic properties.

The length

According to Pierre Mora's edition of Les Véritables Clavicules de Salomon, the wand should be one and a half feet in length, and an inch thick. This accords well with Franz Bardon's statements that it should be between 3/8 and 3/4 inches in diameter, and about 12-20 inches long.

The Avesta mentions the greatest length of the baresman twigs is the height of a knee, though ancient art shows it approximately the length of the arm (see above). Modern barsoms are much shorter, as short as nine inches.

The wording in Abramelin is somewhat confusing on this point. Perhaps half the length of your arm is intended: "Auch brauchst Du ein reines glattes Stäbchen, ungefähr einen kleinen Finger dick und eine Elle lang, von Mandelbaum." (You also need a small staff, pure and smooth, approximately a small finger thick, and a elle/yard long, from almond-wood.)

According to Ad. 36674, fol. 73r it should be in thickness "neere as big as your arm at the hand, and it must be just a cubit long, and the barke taken away, and remain white without painting."

The Grand Grimoire specifies a length of nineteen and an half inches.

Joseph Anton Herpentil, in his Epitome of supernatural magic, That is R. P. S. F. (1519) specifies the wand (or rod) should be 4 spans long.

Additional materials added to the wand

The literature includes some examples of adding materials to the wand to enhance certain characteristics. Here are some of the more commonly ascribed magical attributes of materials.

AetitesStone associated with Venus (Agrippa, OP1.28).
AmberAssociated with Venus (Agrippa, OP1.28).
AmethystStone associated with Scorpio (MC).
BerylStone associated with Libra (MC).
BirthwortSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Pisces (MC).
CalamintSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Virgo (MC).
CarbuncleStone associated with the Sun (MC).
CarnelianStone sacred to Venus (Agrippa, OP1.28).
ChalcedonyStone associated with the zodiacal sign Cancer (MC).
ChrisophraseStone associated with Capricorn (MC).
CockBird associated with Gemini (MC).
ComfreySacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Cancer (MC).
CopperMetal associated with Venus (MC). According to Pseudo-Bacon, the magical scepter must have affixed to the end a lamin of copper with certain symbols on it.
CoralAssociated with Venus (Agrippa, OP1.28).
CrowSacred bird associated with the zodiacal sign of Sagittarius (MC).
CrystalStone associated with Mercury and with Aquarius(MC).
CyclamenSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Leo (MC).
Date palmused to bind the tamarisk wands of the magi.
DockSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Capricorn (MC).
DoveBird associated with Venus and with Taurus (MC).
DragonwortSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Aquarius (MC).
EagleBird associated with Jupiter and Leo (MC).
EmeraldStone associated with Venus and Virgo (Agippa, OP1.28, MC).
GarlicSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Libra (MC).
GoldMetal associated with the Sun (MC).
GooseSacred bird associated with the zodiacal sign of Libra (MC).
GraniteStone associated with Saturn (MC).
HeliotropeHerb associated with the Sun (MC)
HeronSacred bird associated with the zodiacal sign of Capricorn (MC).
IbisSacred bird associated with the zodiacal sign of Cancer (MC).
IronMetal associated with Mars (MC). Levi recommends a core of magnetized iron.
JacinthStone associated with Sagittarius (MC).
JasperStone associated with Venus (Agrippa, OP1.28), or Leo (MC).
Jove's Beard(Silver-leaved Woodblade plant) Herb associated with Jupiter (MC).
Lapis LazuliStone associated with Venus (Agrippa OP1.28).
LapwingBird associated with Saturn (MC).
LeadMetal associated with Saturn (MC).
MaidenhairHerb associated with Venus (MC)
MetalGrand Grimoire recommends metal caps.
MonkshoodHerb associated with Mars
OwlBird associated with the Moon and with Aries (MC).
PeacockSacred bird associated with the zodiacal sign of Aquarius (MC).
PimpernelSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Sagittarius (MC).
RubyStone associated with Mars (MC).
SageSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Aries (MC).
SapphireStone associated with Venus (Agrippa, OP1.28), also with the Moon and with Pisces(MC).
SardStone associated with Taurus (MC).
SardonyxStone associated with Aries (MC).
SelenotropeHerb associated with the Moon (MC)
SempervivumHerb associated with Saturn (MC)
SilverMetal associated with the Moon (MC).
SparrowSacred bird associated with the zodiacal sign of Virgo (MC).
St. John's WortSibly specifies that this be bound to the top of the wand for use in necromantic operations. (p. 1106)
StorkBird associated with Mercury (MC).
SwanBird associated with the Sun and Pisces(MC).
TinMetal associated with Jupiter (MC).
TopazStone associated with Jupiter and with Gemini(MC).
TuthiaGem stone associated with Jupiter (Agrippa).
Vervain (Bending)Sacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Gemini (MC). Vervain was sacred and carried in religious processions according to several ancient writers (cf. Meyer & Smith, Ancient Christian Magic, p. 63.)
Vervain (Upright)Sacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Taurus (MC).
VultureBird associated with Mars (MC).
WoodpeckerSacred bird associated with the zodiacal sign of Scorpio (MC).
WormwoodSacred plant associated with the Zodiacal sign of Scorpio (MC).

Other elements

BarkHalf of the wand is left covered with bark in the method cited by de Givry.
Letters Trithemius specifies that the wand should have certain Hebrew characters written in gold.
Magical symbols The Greek Magical Papyri directs the magician to write the sacred or mystical names of gods or angels on the wand (for example see Betz p. 14). See Key of Solomon for magical symbols for the wand.

How to use the magic wand

Most magic texts agree that the wand should be held in the right hand while praying, or while calling or addressing spirits. Christopher A. Faraone gives an ancient Greek spell wherein the divinity or spirit is invoked while holding a branch of laurel in the right hand, and an ebony staff in the left. When dismissing the spirits, the hands are switched. (Compare Meyer, p. 272.) This also has a parallel in PGM I.335 (Betz p. 12). In this use it is primarily used as a defensive weapon. It is used to strike the bowl in some divination methods. In Zoroastrian ritual the gaze and the ritual power ('amal) is focussed on the barsom. It is also held in the right hand.


References

Abognazar, Les Véritables Clavicules de Salomon, traduites de l'Hebreux en langue Latine par le Rabin Abognazar. London, British Library, Lansdowne Mss. 1203.
Abramelin Abraham of Worms, The Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage, edited by S. L. Mathers (London, J.M. Watkins, 1900.)
Agrippa Occult Philosophy (London, Moule, 1651).
Bardon, Franz, Practice of Magical Evocation (Merkur, 2001)
Betz, Hans Dieter The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, including the Demotic Spells, Second Edition (Chicago, Univ of Chicago Press, 1992)
Budge, Amulets and Talismans, (New York, Macmillan, 1930, p. 488; EM, p. 92.)
Budge, Egyptian Magic (London, 1901/reprint New York, Dover, 1971, p. 92): ebony rod.
Butler, E. M., Ritual Magic (Cambridge, 1949, reprint Hollywood, Newcastle, 1971.) She cites (p. 122) Cellini's account of ritual magic (circa 1533) along the lines of the grimoires, including the use of a wand.
Ellis, Peter Berresford A Brief History of the Druids(New York, 2002)
Faraone, Christopher A., Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion (New York, Oxford, 1991, p. 177.)
Gale, Fred, Hollies: The Genus Ilex (Portland, Timber Press, 1997)
De Givry, Emile Grillot Witchcraft, Magic, and Alchemy
Grand Grimoire Le Grand Grimoire (Paris, B. RENAULT, 1845)
Grimorium Verum Grimorium Verum La Clavicola del Re Salomone Tesoro delle Scienze Occulte. (Firenze, AMATO MUZZI, 1880)
Herpentil, Joseph Anton Inbegriff der übernatürlichen Magie (Epitome of supernatural magic) (1519) reprinted in J. Scheible, Das Kloster, Bd. 3, pp. 626-633.
Honorius, Sworn Book of Gösta Hedegård, Liber Iuratus Honorii : A Critical Edition of the Latin Version of the Sworn Book of Honorius. Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 2002.
Iamblichus On the Mysteries, part 2, and part 3.
Key of Solomon See Mathers. Also ad36674.htm.
Levi, Eliphas, Transcendental Magic (Dogma et Rituel de la Haute Magie).
Mathers, S. L.,The Key of Solomon the King, Book 2, chapter 8 and passim. (London, George Redway. 1889.)
MC: Magical Calendar, ed. Adam McLean (Grand Rapids MI, Phanes, 1994).
Meyer, Marvin, Ancient Christian Magic (1999).
Modi, Jivanji Jamshedji. The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees. Bombay: British Indian Press, 1922.
Mora, Pierre, Les Véritables Clavicules de Salomon, tr. par Pierre Mora, contenant un grand nombre de figures cabalistes, avec la manière de les faire suivant les principes de la science occulte des plus fameux nécromanciens qui ont vécu après Salomon, et où l'on trouvera les plus rares secrets. 153 pages. Paris, H. Daragon, 1914.
Peterson, J. (editor), Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses
Scot, Reginald, Discoverie of Witchcraft (London, 1584)
Sibly, Ebenezer,A New and Complete Illustration of the Occult Sciences, Book 4. (Bristol, 1704.)
Sl. 3847:London, British Library, Sloane manuscript 3847.
Trithemius(or pseudo-trithemius) his treatise on invoking angels into a crystal in F. Barrett, The Magus.
Waite, A.E. Book of Ceremonial Magic
Yates, William Butler, Treasury of Irish Myth, Legend & Folklore (New York, Gramercy Books, 1986, p. 147.)


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