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Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa: Of Occult Philosophy, Book I. (part 2)

This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson, Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved. Updated May 29, 2019.

Chapter xviii. Of the Inclinations of Enmities.

On the contrary there are inclinations of Emnities, and they are as it were the odium, and anger, indignation, and a certain kind of obstinate contrariety of nature, so that any thing shuns its contrary, and drives it away out of its presence. Such kinds of inclinations hath Rhubarb against Choller [choler], Treacle against poison, the Saphir [sapphire] Stone against hot biles [boils], and feavorish [feverish] heats, and diseases of the eyes; the Amethyst against drunkenness, the Jasper against Flux of blood, and offensive imaginations, the Emrald [emerald], and Agnus Castus against Lust, Achates against poison, Piony [peony] against the Falling sickness, Corall against the ebullition of black Choller [choler], and pains of the stomack [stomach]. The Topaze against spirituall heats, such as are covetousness, lust, and all manner of excesses of love. The like inclination is there also of Pismire [ants] against the Hearb [herb] Origanum [oregano], and the wing of a Bat, and the heart of a Lapwing, from the presence of which they flie [fly]. Also Origanum [oregano] is contrary to a certain poisonous fly, which cannot endure the Sun, and resists Salamanders, and loathes Cabbage with such a deadly hatred, that they destroy one the other; so Cucumbers hate oile, and will run themselves into a ring least they should touch it. And it is said that the Gall of a Crow makes men afraid, and drives them sway from where it is, as also certain other things; so a Diamond doth disagree with the Loadstone, that being set by it, it will not suffer Iron to be drawn to it; and sheep fly from Frog-parsley as from some deadly thing: and that which is more wonderfull, nature hath pictured the sign of this death in the livers of sheep, in which the very figure of Frog-parsley being described, doth naturally appear; So Goats do so hate garden basil, as if there were nothing more pernicious. And again, amongst Animals, Mice, and Weesels [weasels] do disagree; whence it is said that Mice will not touch Cheese, if the brains of a Weesel [weasel] be put in the rennet, and besides that the Cheese will not be corrupt with age. So a Lizard is so contrary to Scorpions, that it makes them afraid with its very sight, as also it puts them into a cold sweat; therefore they are killed with the oile of them, which oile also cures the wounds made by Scorpions. There is also an enmity betwixt Scorpions, and Mice: wherefore if a Mouse be applyed to a prick or wound made by a Scorpion, it cures it, as it is reported. There is also an enmity betwixt Scorpions, and Stalabors, Aspes, and Waspes. It is reported also that nothing is so much an enemy to Snakes as Crabs, and that if Swine be hurt therewith they eat them, and are cured. The Sun also being in Cancer, Serpents are tormented. Also the Scorpion, and Crocodile kil [kill] one the other; and if the Bird Ibis doth but touch a crocodile with one of his feathers, he makes him immovable; the Bird called Bustard flies away at the sight of a horse; and a Hart runs away at the sight of a Ram, as also of a Viper. An Elephant trembles at the hearing of the grunting of a Hog, so doth a Lyon [lion] at the sight of a Cock: And Panthers will not touch them that are annointed [anointed] all over with the broth of a Hen, especially if Garlick hath been boiled in it. There is also enmity betwixt Foxes, and Swans, Buls [bulls], and Daws [jackdaws]. Amongst Birds also some are at a perpetuall strife one with another, as also with other Animals, as Daws [jackdaws], and Owles, the Kite, and Crows, the Turtle, and Ring-taile, Egepis, and Eagles, Harts, and Dragons. Also amongst Water Animals there is enmity, as betwixt Dolphins, and Whirpools, Mullets, and Pikes, Lampreys, and Congers: Also the fish called Pourcontrel makes the Lobster so much afraid, that the Lobster seeing the other but neer him, is struck dead. The Lobster, and Conger tear one the other. The Civet Cat is said to stand so in awe of the Panther, that he hath no power to resist him, or touch his skin: and they say that if the skins of both of them be hanged up one against the other, the haires of the Panthers skin fall off. And Orus Apollo saith in his Hieroglyphicks, if any one be girt about with the skin of the Civet Cat, that he may pass safely through the middle of his enemies, and not at all be afraid. Also the Lamb is very much afraid of the Wolf, and flies from him. And they say that if the taile, or skin, or head of a Wolf be hanged upon the sheep-coate, the sheep are much troubled, and cannot eat their meat for fear. And Pliny makes mention of a Bird, called Marlin, that breaks Crows Eggs; whose young are so annoyed by the Fox that she also will pinch, and pull the Foxes whelps, and the Fox her self also: which when the Crows see, they help the Fox against her, as against a common enemy. The litle Bird called a Linnet living in Thistles, hates Asses, because they eat the Flowers of Thistles. Also there is such a bitter enmity betwixt the litle bird called Esalon, and the Asse, that their blood will not mix together, and that at the braying of the Asse both the eggs and young of the Esalon perish. There is also such a disagreement betwixt the Olive-tree and a Harlot, that if she Plant it, it will either be alwayes unfruitfull, or altogether wither. A Lyon [lion] fears nothing so much as fired Torches, and will be tamed by nothing so much as by these: and the Wolf fears neither sword, nor spear, but a stone, by the throwing of which a wound being made, worms breed in the Wolf. A Horse fears a Camell, so that he cannot endure to see so much as his picture. An Elephant when he rageth, is quieted by seeing of a Cock. A Snake is afraid of a man that is naked, but pursues a man that is clothed. A mad Bull is tamed by being tyed to a Fig-tree. Amber draws all things to it besides Garden Basill, and those things, which are smeared with oile, betwixt which there is a kinde of a naturall Antipathy.

Chapter xix. How the Vertues of things are to be tryed and found out, which are in them specifically, or in any one Individuall by way of speciall gift.

Moreover thou must consider that the Vertues of things are in some things according to the species, as boldness, and courage in a Lyon [lion], & Cock: fearfulness in a Hare, or Lamb, ravenousness in a Wolf, treachery, and deceitfulness in a Fox, flattery in a Dog, covetousness in a Crow, and Daw [jackdaw], pride in a Horse, anger in a Tygre [tiger], and Boar, sadness, and melancholy in a Cat, lust in a sparrow, and so of the rest. For the greatest part of naturall Vertues doth follow the species. Yet some are in things individually; as there be some men which do so wonderfully abhor the sight of a Cat, that they cannot look upon her without quaking; which fear it is manifest is not in them as they are men. And Avicen tels of a man that lived in his time, whom all poisonous things did shun, all of them dying, which did by chance bite him, he himself not being hurt, and Albertus reports that in a City of the Ubians he saw a wench who would catch Spiders to eat them, and being much pleased with such a kind of meat, was wonderfully nourished therewith. So is boldness in a Harlot, fearfulness in a Thief. And upon this account it is that Philosophers say, that any particular thing that never was sick, is good against any manner of sickness: therefore they say that a bone of a dead man, who never had a feavor [fever], being laid upon the patient, frees him of his quartane. There are also many singular vertues infused into particular things by Celestiall bodies, as we have shewed before.

Chapter xx. That naturall Vertues are in some things throughout their whole substance, and in other things in certain parts, and members.

Again thou must consider, that the vertues of things are in some things in the whole (i.e.) the whole substance of them, or in all their parts, as that little fish Echeneis, which is said to stop a ship by its meer touch, this it doth not do according to any particular part, but according to the whole substance. So the Civet Cat hath this in its whole substance, that Dogs by the very touch of his shadow hold their peace. So Salendine is good for the sight, not according to any one but all its parts, not more in the root then in the leaves, and seeds; and so of the rest. But some vertues are in things according to some parts of it, viz. only in the tongue, or eyes, or some other members, and parts; so in the eyes of a Basilisk, is a most violent power to kill men, assoon as they see them: the like power is there in the eyes of the Civet Cat, which makes any Animall that it hath looked upon, to stand still, to be amazed, and not able to move it self. The like vertue is there in the eyes of some Wolfes [wolves], which if they see a man first, make him amazed, and so hoarse, that if he would cry out, he hath not the use of his voice: Of this Virgil makes mention, when he sings,

Moeris is dumb, hath lost his voice, and why?
The Wolf on
Moeris first hath cast his eye.

So also there were some certain women in Scythia, and amongst the Illyrians, and Triballians, who as often as they looked angrily upon any man, were said to slay him. Also we read of a certain people of Rhodes, called Telchines, who corrupted all things with their sight, wherefore Jupiter drowned them. Therefore Witches, when they would after this manner work by witchcraft, use the eyes of such kind of Animals in their waters for the eyes, for the like effects. In like manner do Pismires [ants] fly from the heart of a Lapwing, not from the head, foot, or eyes. So the gall of Lizards being bruised in Water is said to gather Weesels [weasels] together, not the taile or the head of it; and the gall of Goats put into the Earth in a brazen Vesel [vessel], gathers Frogs together; and a Goats liver is an enemy to Butterflies and all Maggots, and dogs shun them that have the heart of a Dog about them, and Foxes will not touch those poultry that have eaten the liver of a Fox. So divers things have divers vertues dispersed variously through several parts, as they are from above infused into them according to the diversity of things to be received; as in a mans body the bones receive nothing but life, the eyes sight, the ears hearing. And there is in mans body a certain little bone, which the Hebrews call LVZ, of the bigness of a pulse that is husked, which is subject to no corruption, neither is it overcome with Fire, but is alwaies preserved unhurt, out of which, as they say, as a Plant out of the seed, our Animall bodies shall in the Resurrection of the dead spring up. And these vertues are not cleared by reason, but by experience.

Chapter xxi. Of the Vertues of things which are in them only in their life time, and such as remain in them even after their death.

Moreover we must know that there are some properties in things only whilest they live, and some that remain after their death. So the litle fish Echeneis stops the ships, and the Basilisk, and Catablepa kill with their sight, when they are alive; but when they are dead do no such thing. So they say that in the Colick, if a live Duck be applyed to the belly, it takes away the pain, and her self dies: like to this is that which Archytas sayes. If you take a heart newly taken out of an Animall, and whilest it is yet warm, and hang it upon one that hath a quartane feavor [fever], it drives it away. So if any one swallow the heart of a Lapwing, or a Swallow, or a Weesel [weasel], or a Mole whilest it is yet warm with naturall heat, it shall be helpfull to him for remembring [remembering], understanding, and foretelling: Hence is this generall rule, viz. That whatsoever things are taken out of Animals, whether they be Stones, any Member, Excrements, as Haire, Dung, Nailes, they must be taken from those Animals, whilest they be yet living; and if it be possible, that so they may be alive afterwards. Whence they say, when you take the tongue of a Frog, you must put the Frog into the water again; and if you take the tooth of a Wolf, you must not kill the Wolf; and so of the rest. So writes Democritus, if any one take out the tongue of a water-Frog, yet living, no other part of the body sticking to it, and she be let go into the Water again, & lay it upon the place where the heart beats, of a woman, she shall answer truly whatsoever you ask her. Also they say, that if the eyes of a Frog be before Sun rising bound to the sick party, and the Frog be let go again blind into the Water, they will drive away tertian ague; as also that they will, being bound with the flesh of a Nightingale in the skin of a Hart, keep one alwaies watchfull without sleep. Also the ray of the fork fish being bound to the Navil [navel], is said to make a woman have an easie travel, if it be taken from it alive, and it put into the Sea again. So they say the right eye of a Serpent being applyed, doth help the watering of the eyes, if the Serpent be let go alive. And there is a certain fish, or great Serpent called Myrus, whose eye, if it be pulled out, and bound to the forehead of the patient, is said to cure the inflamation [inflammation] of the eyes, and that the eye of the fish grows again, and that he is taken blind that did not let the fish go. Also the teeth of all Serpents, being taken out whilest they are alive, and hanged about the patient, are said to cure the quartane. So doth the tooth of a Mole taken out whilest she is alive, being afterwards let go, cure the tooth-ach [toothache]; and Dogs will not bark at those that have the taile of a Weesel [weasel] that is escaped. And Democritus relates that the tongue of a Chameleon, if it be taken from her alive, doth conduce to a good success in trials, and is profitable for women that are in travel, if it be about the outside of the house, for you must take heed that it be not brought into the house, because that would be most dangerous; Moreover there be some properties that remain after death: and of these the Platonists say, that they are things in which the Idea of the matter is less swallowed up, in these, even after death that which is immortall in them, doth not cease to work wonderfull things. So in the Hearbs [herbs], and Plants pulled asunder, and dryed, that vertue is quick, and operative which was infused at first into them by the Idea. Thence it is, that as the Eagle all her life time doth overcome all other birds: so also her feathers after her death destroy, and consume the feathers of all other birds. Upon the same account doth a Lyons [lion's] skin destroy all other skins: and the skin of the Civet Cat destroyes the skin of the Panther: and the skin of a Wolf corrodes the skin of a Lamb: And some of these do not do it by way of a corporeall contact, but also sometimes by their very sound. So a drum made of the skin of a Wolf, makes a drum made of a Lamb skin not to sound. Also a drum made of the skin of the fish called Rotchet, drives away all creeping things, at what distance soever the sound of it is heard: and the strings of an instrument made of the guts [intestines] of a Wolf, and being strained [strung] upon a Harp, or Lute with strings made of sheeps guts, will make no harmony.

Chapter xxii. How inferior things are subjected to superior bodies, and how the bodies, the actions, and dispositions of men are ascribed to Stars, and Signes.

It is manifest that all things inferiour are subject to the superiour, and after a manner (as saith Proclus) they are one in the other, viz. in inferiour are superiour, and in superiour are inferiour: so in the Heaven are things Terrestriall, but as in their cause, and in a Celestiall manner; and in the Earth are things Celestiall, but after a Terrestriall manner, as in an effect. So we say that there be here certain things which are Solary, and certain which are Lunary, in which the Sun, and Moon make a strong impression of their vertue. Whence it is that these kind of things receive more operations, and properties, like to those of the Stars, & Signes which they are under: So we know that Solary things respect the heart, & head, by reason that Leo is the house of the Sun, and Aries the exaltation of the Sun: so things under Mars are good for the head, and testicles, by reason of Aries, and Scorpio. Hence they whose senses faile, and heads ake [ache] by reason of drunkenness, if they put their testicles into cold Water, or wash them with Vinegar, find present help. But in reference to these it is necessary to know how mans body is distributed to Planets, & Signes. Know therefore that according to the doctrine of the Arabians, the Sun rules over the brain, heart, the thigh, the marrow, the right eye, and the spirit; also the tongue, the mouth, and the rest of the Organs of the senses, as well internall as externall; also the hands, feet, legs, nerves, and the power of imagination. That Mercury rules over the spleen, stomack [stomach], bladder, womb, and right ear, as also the faculty of the common sense. That Saturn rules over the liver and fleshy part of the stomack [stomach]. That Jupiter over the belly, and navill [navel], whence it is written by the Ancients, that the effigies of a navil [navel] was laid up in the temple of Jupiter Hammon. Also some attribute to him the ribs, breast, bowels, blood, arms, and the right hand, and left ear, and the powers natural. And some set Mars over the blood, and veins, the kidnies [kidneys], the bag of the gall [gall bladder], the buttocks, the back, motion of the sperm, and the irascible power. Again they set Venus over the kidnies [kidneys], the testicles, the privities, the womb, the seed, and concupiscible power; as also the flesh, fat, belly, breast, navill [navel], and all such parts as server to venerall [venereal] acts, also the Os sacrum, the back bone [backbone], and loins; as also the head, mouth, with which they give a kiss, as a token of love. Now the Moon, although she may challenge the whole body, and every member thereof according to the variety of the Signes: yet more particularly they ascribe to her the brain, lungs, marrow of the back bone [backbone], the stomack [stomach], the menstrues, and all other excrements, and the left eye, as also the power of increasing. But Hermes saith, That there are seven holes in the head of an Animall, distributed to the seven Planets, viz. the right ear to Saturne, the left to Jupiter, the right nostrell [nostril] to Mars, the left to Venus, the right eye to the Sun, the left to the Moon, and the mouth to Mercury. The severall Signes also of the Zodiack take care of their members. So Aries governs the head, and face, Taurus the neck, Gemini the armes, and shoulders, Cancer the breast, lungs, stomack [stomach], and armes, Leo heart, stomack [stomach], liver, and back, Virgo the bowels, and bottome of the stomack [stomach], Libra the kidnies [kidneys], thighs, and buttocks, Scorpius [Scorpio] the genitals, the privities, and womb, Sagittarius the thigh, and groins, Capricornus the knees, Aquarius the legs and shins, Pisces the feet. And as the triplicities of these Signes answer one the other, and agree in Celestials, so also they agree in the members, which is sufficiently manifest by experience, because with the coldness of the feet, the belly, and breast are affected, which members answer the same triplicity; whence it is, if a medicine be applyed to the one, it helps the other, as by the warming of the feet, the pain of the belly ceaseth. Remember therefore this order, and know, that things which are under any one of the Planets, have a certain particular aspect, or inclination to those members that are attributed to that Planet, and especially to the houses, and exaltations thereof. For the rest of the dignities, as those triplicities, and markes, and face, are of litle account in this; upon this account therefore Piony [peony], Balme, Clove-gilliflowers, Citron-pils, sweet Marjoram, Cynnamon [cinnamon], Saffron, Lignum Aloes, Frankincense, Amber [=ambergris], Musk, and Myrrh help the head, and heart; by reason of sol [the Sun], Aries, and Leo: so doth Rib-wort, the Hearb [herb] of Mars, help the head, and testicles by reason of Aries, and Scorpio: and so of the rest. Also all things under Saturne conduce to sadness, and melancholly [melancholy]; those under Jupiter to mirth, and honour; those under Mars to boldness, contention, and anger; those under the Sun to glory, victory and courage; those under Venus to love, lust, and concupiscence; those under Mercury to Eloquence; those under the Moon to a common life. Also all the actions, and dispositions of men are distributed according to the Planets. For Saturne governes old men, Monkes, melancholly [melancholy] men, and hid treasures; and those things which are obtained with long journies [journeys], and difficulty; but Jupiter, those that are Religious, Prelates, Kings, and Dukes, and such kind of gains that are got lawfully: Mars rules over Barbers, Chirurgeons, Physitians [physicians], Sergeants, Executioners, Butchers, all that make fires, Bakers, Souldiers [soldiers], who are every where called Martial men. Also do the other Stars signifie their office, as they are described in the books of Astrologers.

Chapter xxiii. How we shall know what Stars naturall things are under, and what things are under the Sun, which are called Solary.

Now it is very hard to know, what Star, or Signe every thing is under: yet it is known through the imitation of their rayes, or motion, or figure of the superiours. Also some of them are known by their colours and odours, also some by the effects of their operations, answering to some Stars. So then Solary things, or things under the power of the Sun are, amongst Elements, the lucid flame; in the humours, the purer blood, and spirit of life; amongst tasts [tastes], that which is quick, mixed with sweetness. Amongst Metals, Gold by reason of its splendor, and its receiving that from the Sun which makes it cordiall. And amongst stones, they which resemble the rayes of the Sun by their golden sparklings, as doth the glittering stone Aetites which hath power against the Falling-sickness, and poisons: so also the stone, which is called the eye of the Sun, being of a figure like to the Apple of the eye, from the middle whereof shines forth a ray, it comforts the brain, and strengthens the sight; So the Carbuncle which shines by night, hath a vertue against all aiery, and vaporous poison: so the Chrysolite stone is of a light green colour, in which, when it is held against the Sun, there shines forth a golden Star; and this comforts those parts that serve for breathing, & helps those that be Asthmaticall, and if it be bored through, and the hole filled with the Mane of an Asse, and bound to the left arme, it drives away idle imaginations, and melancholy fears, and puts away foolishness: So the stone called Iris, which is like Crystall in colour, being often found with six corners, when under some roof part of it is held against the rayes of the Sun, and the other part is held in the shadow, it gathers the rayes of the Sun into it self, which, whilest it sends them forth, by way of reflection, makes a Rain-bow [rainbow] appear on the opposite wall. Also the Stone Heliotropion [heliotrope] green like the Jasper, or Emrald [emerald], beset with red specks [i.e. bloodstone], makes a man constant, renowned, and famous, also it conduceth to long life: And the vertue of it indeed is most wonderfull upon the beams of the Sun, which it is said to turn into blood (i.e.) to appear of the colour of blood, as if the Sun were eclypsed [eclipsed], viz. When it is joyned to the juice of a Hearb [herb] of the same name, and be put into a vessell of Water: There is also another vertue of it more wonderfull, and that is upon the eyes of men, whose sight it doth so dim, and dazel [dazzle], that it doth not suffer him that carries it to see it, & this it doth not do without the help of the Hearb [herb] of the same name, which also is called Heliotropium [heliotrope], (i.e.) following the Sun. These vertues doth Albertus Magnus, and William of Paris confirm in their writings. The Hyacinth also hath a vertue from the Sun against poisons, and pestiferous vapours; it makes him that carries it to be safe, and acceptable; it conduceth also to riches, and wit, it strengthens the heart; being held in the mouth, it doth wonderfully cheer up the mind. Also there is the stone Pyrophylus, of a red mixture, which Albertus Magnus saith Æsculapius, makes mention of in one of his Epistles unto Octavius Augustus, saying, that there is a certain poison so wonderfull cold, which preserves the heart of man being taken out from burning, so that if for any time it be put into the Fire, it is turned into a stone, and this is that stone which is called Pyrophylus, from the fire. It hath a wonderfull vertue against poison, and it makes him that carries it, to be renowned and dreadfull to his enemies. But above all, that stone is most Solary, which Apollonius is reported to have found, and which is called Pantaura, which draws other stones to it, as the Loadstone doth Iron, most powerfull against all poisons; it is called by some Pantherus, because it is spotted like the beast called the Panther. It is therefore also called Pantochras, because it contains all colours. Aaron cals it Evanthum. There are also other Solary stones, as the Topazius, Chrysopassus, the Rubine, and Balagius. So also is Auripigmentum, and things of a golden colour, and very lucid. Amongst plants also and trees, those are Solary, which turn towards the Sun, as the Marygold [marigold], and those which fold in their leaves when the Sun is neer upon setting, but when it riseth unfold their leaves by little and little. The Lote-tree also is Solary, as is manifest by the figure of the fruit & leaves. So also Piony [peony], Sallendine, Balme, Ginger, Gentian, Dittany, & Vervin [vervain], which is of use in prophecying [prophesying], and expiations, as also driving away evill spirits. The Bay-tree also is consecrated to Phoebus, so is the Cedar, the Palm tree, the ash, the Ivie [ivy], and Vine, and whatsoever repell poisons, and lightnings, and those things which never fear the extremities of the Winter. Solary also are Mint, Mastick, Zedoary, Saffron, Balsome [balsam], Amber [=ambergris], Musk, Yellow honey, Lignum aloes, Cloves, Cinnamon, Calamus, Aromaticus, Pepper, Frankincense, sweet Marjoram, also Libanotis, which Orpheus cals the sweet perfume of the Sun. Amongst Animals those are Solary which are magnanimous, couragious [courageous], ambitious of victory, and renown: as the Lyon [lion], King of beasts, the Crocodile, the spotted Wolf, the Ram, the Boar, the Bull, King of the herd, which was by the Egyptians at Heliopolis dedicated to the Sun, which they called Verites; and an Ox was consecrated to Apis in Memphi [Memphis], and in Herminthus a Bull by the name of Pathis. The Wolf also was consecrated to Apollo, and Latona. Also the beast called Baboon is Solary, which twelve times in a day, viz. every hour barks, and in time of Equinoctium [equinox] pisseth [urinates] twelve times every hour: the same also it doth in the night, whence the Egyptians did Engrave him upon their Fountains. Also amongst birds these are Solary, The Phoenix, being but one of that kind, and the Eagle, the Queen of birds, also the Vulture, the Swan, and those which sing at the rising Sun, and as it were call upon it to rise, as the Cock, Crow, also the Hawk, which because it in the Divinity of the Egyptians is an emblem of the spirit, and light, is by Porphyrius [Porphyry] reckoned amongst the Solary birds. Moreover, all such things as have some resemblance of the works of the Sun, as Worms shining in the night, and the Betle [beetle], which is a creature that lies under Cow-dung, also according to Appious interpretation, such whose eyes are changed according to the course of the Sun, are accounted Solary, and those things which come of them. And amongst fish, the Sea Calf is chiefly Solary, who doth resist lightning, also shell fish, and the fish called Pulmo, both which shine in the night, and the fish called Stella [i.e. starfish] for his parching heat, and the fish called Strombi [i.e. strombite or sea-snail], that follow their King, and Margari [i.e. oyster], which also have a King, and being dryed, are hardened into a stone of a golden colour.

Chapter xxiv. What things are Lunary, or under the power of the Moon.

These things are Lunary, amongst the Elements, viz. the Earth, then the Water, as well that of the Sea, as of the Rivers, and all moist things, as the moisture of Trees, and Animals, especially they which are White, as the Whites of Eggs, fat, sweat, flegme [phlegm], and the superfluities of bodies. Amongst tasts [tastes], salt, and insipid; amongst Metals, Silver; amongst stones, Crystall, the Silver Marcasite, and all those stones that are White, and Green. Also the stone Selenites (i.e.) Lunary, shining from a white body, with a yellow brightness, imitating the motion of the Moon, having in it the figure of the Moon which daily increaseth, or decreaseth as doth the Moon. Also Pearls, which are generated in shels [shells] of fishes from the droppings of Water, also the Berill [beryl]. Amongst Plants and Trees, these are Lunary, as the Selenotropion, which turns towards the Moon, as doth the Heliotropion towards the Sun, and the Palme tree sends forth a bough at every rising of the Moon; Hyssope also, and Rosemary, Agnus Castu, and the Olive-tree, are Lunary. Also the Hearb [herb] Chinosta, which increaseth, and decreaseth with the Moon, viz. in substance, and number of leaves, not only in Sap, and vertue, which indeed is in some sort common to all Plants, except Onions, which are under the influence of Mars, which have contrary properties; As amongst flying things the Saturnine bird, called a Quaile is a great enemy to the Moon and Sun. Lunary Animals are such as delight to be in mans company, and such as do naturally excell in love, or hatred, as all kinds of Dogs: The Chameleon also is Lunary, which alwaies assumes a colour according to the variety of the colour of the object: as the Moon changeth her nature according to the variety of the Signe which it is found in. Lunary also are Swine, Hinds, Goats, and all Animals whatsoever, that observe, and imitate the motion of the Moon: As the Baboon, and Panther, which is said to have a spot upon her shoulder like the Moon, increasing into a roundness, and having horns that bend inwards. Cats also are Lunary, whose eyes become greater or less, according to the course of the Moon: and those things which are of like nature, as Menstruous blood, of which are made wonderfull and strange things by Magicians; The Civet-Cat also changing her sex, being obnoxious to divers Sorceries, and all Animals that live in water as well as on land: as Otters, and such as prey upon fish. Also all Monstrous beasts, such as without any manifest seed are equivocally generated, as Mice, which sometimes are generated by Coition, sometimes of the putrefaction of the Earth. Amongst fowle, Geese, Ducks, Didoppers, and all kind of watery fowl as prey upon fish, as the Heron, and those that are equivocally produced, as Wasps of the Carkases [carcasses] of horses: Bees of the putrefaction of Cows, small Flies of putrefied wine, and Betles [beetles] of the flesh of Asses; but most Lunary of all is the two-horned Betle [beetle], horned after the manner of a Bull: which digs under Cow-dung, and there remaines for the space of twenty eight daies, in which time the Moon measures the whole Zodiack, and in the twenty ninth day, when it thinks there will be a conjunction of their brightness, it opens the dung and casts it into Water, from whence then come Betles [beetles]. Amongst fish these are Lunary, Ælurus, whose eyes are changed according to the course of the Moon, and whatsoever observes the motion of the Moon, as the Tortoise, the Echeneis, Crabs, Oisters [oysters], Cockles, and Frogs.

Chapter xxv. What things are Saturnine, or under the power of Saturne.

Saturnine things, amongst Elements, are Earth, and also Water: amongst humors, black Choller [choler] that is moist, as well natural, as adventitious, adust Choller [choler] excepted. Amongst tasts [tastes], soure, tart, and dead. Amongst Metals, Lead, and Gold, by reason of its weight, and the golden Marcasite. Amongst stones, the Onix [onyx], the Ziazaa, the Camonius, the Saphir [sapphire], the brown Jasper, the Chalcedon, the Loadstone, and all dark, weighty, earthy things. Amongst Plants, and Trees the Daffodill, Dragon-wort [dragon's wort], Rue, Cummin [cumin], Hellebor [Hellebore], the tree from whence Benzoine comes, Mandrake, Opium, and those things which stupifie, and those things which are never sown, and never bear fruit, and those which bring forth berries of a dark colour, and black fruit, as the black Fig-tree, the Pine-tree, the Cypress-tree, and a certain tree used at burials, which never springs afresh with berries, rough, of a bitter tast [taste], of a strong smell, of a black shadow, yielding a most sharp pitch, bearing a most unprofitable fruit, never dies with age, deadly, dedicated to Pluto, as is the Hearb [herb] pas-flower, with which they were wont Anciently to strow the graves before they put the dead bodies into them, wherefore it was lawfull to make their Garlands at feasts with all Hearbs [herbs], and Flowers besides pas-flowers, because it was mournfull, and not conducing to mirth. Also all creeping Animals, living apart, and solitary, nightly, sad, contemplative, dull, covetous, fearfull, melancholly [melancholy], that take much pains, slow, that feed grosly, and such as eat their young. Of these kinds therefore are the Ape, the Cat, the Hog, the Mule, the Camel, the Bear, the Mole, the Asses, the Wolf, the Hare, the Dragon, the Basilisk, the Toad, all Serpents, and creeping things, Scorpions, Pismires [ants], and such things as proceed from putrefaction in the Earth, in Water, or in the ruines of houses, as Mice, and many sorts of Vermin. Amongst birds those are Saturnine, which have long necks, and harsh voices, as Cranes, Estriches [ostriches], and Peacocks, which are dedicated to Saturn, and Juno. Also the scrich-Owle [screech-owl], the horn-Owle [horned-owl], the Bat, the Lapwing, the Crow, the Quaile, which is the most envious bird of all. Amongst fishes, the Eel, living apart from all other fish; the Lamprey, the Dog-fish, which devours her young, also the Tortoise, Oisters [oysters], Cockles, to which may be added Sea-spunges [sea-sponges], and all such things as come of them.

Chapter xxvi. What things are under the power of Jupiter, and are called Jovial.

Things under Jupiter, amongst Elements, are the Aire: amongst humors, blood, and the spirit of life, also all things which respect the encrease [increase], nourishment, and vegetation of the life. Amongst tasts [tastes] such as are sweet, and pleasant. Amongst Metals, Tin, Silver, and Gold, by reason of their temperateness: Amongst stones, the Hyacinth, Beril [beryl], Saphir [sapphire], [tutia],1 the Emrald [emerald], green Jasper, and [permanently green and copper coloured] <aiery colours>:2 Amongst Plants and Trees, Sea-green, Garden Basil, Bugloss, Mace, Spike, Mints, Mastick, Elicampane, the Violet, Darnell, Henbane, the Poplar tree, and those which are called lucky trees, as the Oke [oak], the tree æsculus [horse-chestnut] which is like an Oke [oak] but much bigger, the Holm tree, the Beech tree, the Hasle [hazel] tree, the Service tree, the white Fig tree, the Pear tree, the Apple tree, the Vine, the Plum tree, the Ash, the Dog-tree, and the Olive tree, and also Oile [oil, oleum].3 Also all manner of Corn, as Barley, Wheat, also Raisins, Licorish [licorice], Sugar, and all such things whose sweetness is manifest, and subtile, partaking somewhat of an astringent, and sharp tast [taste], as are Nuts, Almonds, Pine-apples [pineapples], Filberds [filberts], Pistake Nuts [pistachios], roots of Peony, Mirabolaus, Rhubarb, and Manna, Orpheus adds Storax. Amongst Animals such as have some stateliness, and wisdom in them, and those which are mild, well trained up, and of good dispositions, as the Hart and Elephant, and those which are gentle, as Sheep and Lambs: Amongst birds, those that are of a temperate complexion, as Hens, together with the Yolk of their Eggs. Also the Partridge, the Pheasant, the Swallow, the Pellican [pelican], the Cuckow [cuckoo], the Stork, birds given to a kind of devotion which are Emblemes of gratitude. The Eagle is dedicated to Jupiter, she is the Ensigne of Emperours, and an Embleme of Justice, and Clemency. Amongst fish, the Dolphin, the fish called Anchia [anchovy], the Sheath fish, by reason of his devoutness.

1. Tutia, Lat. tuthia, is omitted in the J.F. English translation. -JHP

2. Lat.: et perpetuo virides aereique colores. -JHP

3. Lat.: "barba Iovis, ocymum, buglossa, macis, spica, menta, mastyche, inula, viola, lilium, hyoscyamus, populus et quae foelices arbores traduntur, ut quaercus, aesculus, ilex, phagus, corilus, populus, sorbus, ficus alba, pirus, malus, vitis, prunus, fraxinus et cornus atque oliva et oleum." Ficin. Vita 2: 13, p. 519; ps Albert. Aggreg. 1, sig. b1v; sed addict. K: Georgius ib. ff. 78r-v.

Chapter xxvii. What things are under the power of Mars, and are called Martial.

These things are Martiall, amongst Elements, Fire, together with all adust, and sharp things: Amongst humours, Choller [choler]; also bitter tasts [tastes], tart, and burning the tongue, and causing tears: Amongst Metals, Iron, and red Brass; and all fiery, red, and sulphureous things: Amongst Stones the Diamond, Loadstone, the Blood-stone [bloodstone], the Jasper, the stone that consists of divers kinds,1 and the Amethist [amethyst]. Amongst Plants, and Trees, Hellebor, Garlick, Euphorbium, Cartabana, Armoniack, Radish, the Laurell, Wolfs-bane [wolfsbane], Scammony, and all such as are poysonous [poisonous], by reason of too much heat, and those which are beset round about with prickles, or by touching the skin, burn it, prick it, or make it swell, as Cardis, the Nettle, Crow-foot, and such as being eaten cause tears, as Onyons [onions], Ascolonia, Leeks, Mustardseed, and all thorny Trees, and the Dog-tree [dogwood],2 which is dedicated to Mars. And all such Animals as are warlike, ravenous, bold, and of clear fancy, as the Horse, Mule, Goat, Kid, Wolf, Libard [leopard], the wild Ass; Serpents also, and Dragons full of displeasure and poyson [poison]; also all such as are offensive to men, as Gnats, Flies, Baboon, by reason of his anger. All birds that are ravenous, devour flesh, break bones, as the Eagle, the Faulcon [falcon], the Hawk, the Vultur [vulture]; and those which are called the fatall3 Birds, as the Horn-Owl, the Scrich-Owl [screech-owl], Castrels, Kites, and such as are hungry, and ravenous, and such as make a noise in their swallowing, as Crows [*ravens], Daws [*crows], the Pie [*woodpeckers],4 which above all the rest is dedicated to Mars. And amongst Fishes, the Pike, the Barbell, the Fork-fish, the Fish that hath horns like a Ram, the Sturgeon, the Glacus, all which are great devourers, and ravenous.

1. Iaspis multigenius

2. all thorny Trees, and the Dog-tree: omnes spinosae atque cornus.

3. Lat. ferales ("funereal").

4. Lat. corvi et cornices et picus.

Chapter xxviii. What things are under the power of Venus, and are called Venereall.

These things are under Venus, amongst Elements, Aire, and Water; amongst humours, Flegm [phlegm], with Blood, Spirit, and Seed; amongst tasts [tastes], those which are sweet, unctuous, and delectable; amongst Metals, Silver, and Brass, both yellow, and red; amongst Stones, the Berill [beryl], Chrysolite, Emrald [emerald], Saphir [sapphire], green Jasper, Corneola [carnelian], the stone Aetites, the Lazull [lazuli] stone, Corall, and all of a fair, various, white, and green Colour; amongst Plants and Trees the Vervin [vervain], Violet, Maidenhaire, Valerian, which by the Arabian is called Phu; also Thyme, the gum Ladanum, Amber-grise [=ambergris],1 Musk, Sanders [sandalwood], Coriander, and all sweet perfumes, and delightfull, and sweet fruits, as sweet Pears, Figs, Pomegranats [pomegranates], which the Poets say was, in Cyprus, first sown by Venus. Also the Rose of Lucifer was dedicated to her, also the Myrtle tree of Hesperus. Moreover all luxurious, delicious Animals, and of a strong love, as Dogs, Conies, stinking Sheep, and Goats, both female, and male, which generates sooner then any other Animall, for they say that he couples after the seventh day of his being brought forth; also the Bull for his disdain, and the Calf for his wantonness. Amongst birds the Swan, the Wagtail, the Swallow, the Pellican [pelican], the Burgander, which are very loving to their yong [young]. Also the Crow, and Pigeon, which is dedicated to Venus, and the Turtle [turtledove], one whereof was Commanded to be offered at the purification, after bringing forth. The Sparrow also was dedicated to Venus, which was Commanded in the Law to be used in the purification, after the Leprosie [leprosy], a martiall disease, then which nothing was of more force to resist it. Also the Egyptians called the Eagle Venus, because she is prone to Venery, for after she hath been trod thirteen times a day, if the Male call her, she runs to him again. Amongst fishes, these are Venereall, the lustfull Pilchards, the letcherous [lecherous] Gilthead, the Whiting for her love to her yong [young], Crab fighting for his Mate, and Tithymallus for its fragrance, and sweet smell.

1. Lat. reads ambra, which usually meant ambergris. Agrippa uses the term electrum for what we now call amber — i.e. fossilized resin. -JHP

Chapter xxix. What things are under the power of Mercury, and are called Mercuriall.

Things under Mercury are these; amongst Elements, Water, although it moves all things indistinctly; amongst humors, those especially which are mixed, as also the Animall spirit; amongst tasts [tastes] those that are various, strange, and mixed: amongst Metals, Quick-silver, Tin, the Slver Marcasite; amongst stones, the Emrald [emerald], Achates [agates], red Marble, Topaze, and those which are of divers colours, and various figures naturally, & those that are artificiall, as glass, & those which have a colour mixed with yellow, and green. Amongst Plants, and Trees, the Hazle [hazel], Five-leaved-grass, the Hearb [herb] Mercury, Fumitary, Pimpernell, Marjoram, Parsly [parsley], and such as have shorter and less leaves, being compounded of mixed natures, and divers colours. Animals also, that are of quick sence, ingenious, strong, inconstant, swift, and such as become easily acquainted with men, as Dogs, Apes, Foxes, Weesels [weasels], the Hart, and Mule; and all Animals that are of both sexes, and those which can change their Sex, as the Hare, Civet-Cat, and such like. Amongst birds, those which are naturally witty, melodious, and inconstant, as the Linet, Nightingale, Blackbird, Thrush, Lark, the Gnat-sapper, the bird Calandra, the Parret [parrot], the Pie, the Bird Ibis, the bird Porphyrio, the black Betle [beetle] with one horn. And amongst fish, the fish called Trochius, which goes into himself, also Pourcontrell for deceitfulness, and changeableness, and the Fork fish for its industry; the Mullet also that shakes off the bait on the hook with his taile.

Chapter xxx. That the whole sublunary World, and those things which are in it, are distributed to Planets.

Moreover whatsoever is found in the whole world is made according to the governments of the Planets, and accordingly receives its vertue. So in Fire the enlivening light thereof is under the government of the Sun, the heat of it under Mars, in the Earth, the various superficies thereof under the Moon, and Mercury; and the starry Heaven, the whole mass of it under Saturne, but in the middle Elements, Aire is under Jupiter, and Water the Moon, but being mixed are under Mercury, and Venus. In like manner naturall active causes observe the Sun, the matter the Moon, the fruitfulness of active causes Jupiter, the fruitfullness of the matter, Venus, the sudden effecting of any thing, Mars, and Mercury, that for his vehemency, this for his dexterity, and manifold vertue: But the permanent continuation of all things is ascribed to Saturne. Also amongst Vegetables, every thing that bears fruit is from Jupiter, and every thing that bears Flowers is from Venus, all Seed, and Bark is from Mercury, and all roots from Saturne, and all Wood from Mars, and leaves from the Moon. Wherefore, all that bring forth fruit, and not Flowers, are of Saturne and Jupiter, but they that bring forth Flowers, and Seed, and not fruit, are of Venus, and Mercury; These which are brought forth of their own accord without Seed, are of the Moon, and Saturn; All beauty is from Venus, all strength from Mars, and every Planet rules, and disposeth that which is like to it. Also in stones, their weight, Clamminess, and Sliptickness is of Saturne, their use, and temperament of Jupiter, their hardness from Mars, their life from the Sun, their beauty and fairness from Venus, their occult vertue from Mercury, and their common use from the Moon.

Chapter xxxi. How Provinces, and Kingdomes are distributed to Planets.

Moreover the whole Orb of the Earth is distributed by Kingdoms, and Provinces to the Planets, and Signes: For Macedonia, Thracia, Illyria, Arriana, Gordiana, (many of which countries are in the lesser Asia) are under Saturne with Capricorn; but with Aquarius, under him are the Sauromatian Country, Oxiana, Sogdiana, Arabia, Phazania, Media and Æthiopia [Ethiopia], which Countries for the most part belong to the more inward Asia. Under Jupiter with Sagittarius are Tuscana, Celtica, Spaine, and happy Arabia: under him with Pisces, are Lycia, Lydia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Paphlagonia, Nasamonia, and Lybia. Mars with Aries governs Britany, France, Germany, Bastarnia, the lower parts of Syria, Idumea, and Judea: with Scorpio, he rules Syria, Comagena, Cappadocia, Metagonium, Mauritania, and Getulia. The Sun with Leo governs Italy, Apulia, Sicilia, Phenicia, Chaldea, & the Orchenians. Venus with Taurus governs the Isles Cyclades, the Seas of litle Asia, Cyprus, Parthia, Media, Persia: but with Libra she commands the people of the Island Bractia, of Caspia, of Seres, of Thebais, of Oasis, and of Troglodys. Mercury with Gemini, rules Hircania, Armenia, Mantiana, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, and the lower Egypt: but with Virgo, Greece, Achaia, Creta, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Assyria, and Ela, whence they of that place are in Scripture called Elamites. The Moon with Cancer governs Bithivia, Phrygia, Colchica, Numidia, Africa, Carthage, and all Carchedonia. These we have in this manner gathered from Ptolemies [Ptolomy's] opinion, to which according to the writings of other Astrologers many more may be added. But he which knows how to compare these divisions of Provinces according to the divisions of the Stars, with the Ministery [Ministry] of the ruling Intelligencies, and blessings of the Tribes of Israel, the lots of the Apostles, and typicall seales of the sacred Scripture, shall be able to obtain great and propheticall oracles concerning every Region, of things to come.

[Ptolemy, Quadripartitum cf. ed. F. Boll - Ae Boer (Leipzig 1954) 2:3 ¶ 15-50. AKA Tetrabiblos. Compare tr. Ashmand. -JHP]

Chapter xxxii. What things are under the Signes, the fixed Stars, and their Images.

The like consideration is to be had in all things concerning the figures of the fixed Stars: so they will have the Terrestiall [terrestrial] Ram to be under the rule of the Celestiall Aries: and the Terrestiall Bull, and Ox to be under the Celestiall Taurus. So also that Cancer should rule over Crabs, and Leo over Lyons [lions]: Virgo over Virgins, and Scorpio over Scorpions. Capricorn over Goats. Sagittarius over Horses, and Pisces over Fishes. Also the Celestiall Ursa over Bears, Hydra over Serpents, and the Dog-star over Dogs, and so of the rest. Now Apuleius distributes certain and peculiar Hearbs [herbs] to the Signes, and Planets, viz. To Aries the Hearb [herb] Sange [sage], to Taurus Vervine [vervain] that growes straight, to Gemini Vervine [vervain] that growes bending, to Cancer Comfrey, to Leo Sowbread, to Virgo Calamint, to Libra Mug-wort, to Scorpio Scorpion-grass, to Sagittarius Pimpernell, to Capricorn the Dock, to Aquarius Dragon-wort [dragon's-wort], to Pisces Hart-wort. And to the Planets these, viz. to Saturne Sen-green, to Jupiter Agrimony, to Mars Sulphur-wort, to the Sun Marygold [marigold], to Venus Wound-wort, to Mercury Mulleine, to the Moon, Peony. But Hermes, whom Albertus follows, distributes to the Planets these, viz. to Saturne the Daffodill, to Jupiter Henbane, to Mars Rib-wort, to the Sun Knotgrass, to Venus Vervine [vervain], to Mercury Cinquefoile, to the Moon, Goos-foot. We also know by experience that Asparagus is under Aries, and Garden-basill under Scorpio; For of the shavings of Rams-horn sowed, comes forth Asparagus, and Garden Basill rubbed betwixt two stones, produceth Scorpions. Moreover I will according to the doctrine of Hermes, and Thebit reckon up some of the more eminent Stars, whereof the first is called the head of Algol, and amongst stones, rules over the Diamond, amongst Plants, black Hellebor, and Mugwort. The second are the Pleiades, or seven Stars, which amongst stones, rule over Crystall, and the stone Diodocus; amongst Plants, the Hearb [herb] Diacedon, and Frankincense, and Fennill [fennel]: and amongst Metals, Quick-silver [quicksilver]. The third is the Star Aldeboran, which hath under it, amongst stones, the Carbuncle, and Ruby: amongst Plants, the Milky Thistle, and Matry-silva. The fourth is called the Goat-Star, which rules, amongst stones, the Saphir [sapphire], amongst Plants, Horehound, Mint, Mugwort, and Mandrake. The fifth is called the great Dog-star, which amongst stones, rules over the Berill [beryl]: amongst Plants, Savin, Mugwort and Dragonwort: and amongst Animals the tongue of a Snake. The sixth is called the lesser Dog-star, and, amongst stones, rules over Achates [agates]: amongst Plants the Flowers of Marigold, and Penyroial [pennyroyal]. The seventh is called the Heart of the Lyon, which amongst stones, rules over the Granate; amongst Plants, Sallendine, Mugwort, and Mastick. The eighth is the Taile of the lesser Bear, which amongst stones, rules over the Loadstone, amongst Hearbs [herbs], Succory, whose leaves, and Flowers turn towards the North, also Mugwort, and the flowers of Perwinckle [periwinkle]; and amongst Animals the tooth of a Wolf. The ninth is called the Wing of the Crow, under which, amongst stones, are such stones as are of the Colour of the black Onyx stone: amongst Plants the Bur, Quadraginus, Henbane, and Comfrey; and amongst Animals the tongue of a Frog. The tenth is called Spica, which hath under it, amongst stones, the Emrald [emerald]: amongst Plants, Sage, Trifoile, Perwinkle [periwinkle], Mugwort, and Mandrake. The eleventh is called Alchamech, which amongst stones, rules over the Jasper: amongst Plants the Plantain. The twelfth is called Elpheia, under this, amongst stones, is the Topaze; amongst Plants, Rosemary, Trifoile, and Ivy. The thirteenth is called the Heart of the Scorpion, under which, amongst stones, is the Sardonius, and Amethist [amethyst]; amongst Plants long Aristolochy, and Saffron. The fourteenth is the Falling Vultur, under which, amongst stones, is the Chrysolite: amongst Plants Succory, and Fumitary. The fifteenth is the Taile of Capricorn under which, amongst stones, is the Chalcedone [chalcedony]: amongst Plants, Majoram [marjoram], Mugwort, and Nip [catnip], and the root of Mandrake.

Moreover this we must know, that every stone, or Plant, or Animall, or any other thing, is not governed by one Star alone, but many of them receive influence, not separated, but conjoyned, from many Stars. So amongst stones, the Chalcedony is under Saturne, and Mercury, together with the Taile of Scorpion, and Capricorn. The Saphir [sapphire] under Jupiter, Saturne, and the Star Alhajoth; Tutia is under Jupiter, and the Sun and Moon, the Emrald [emerald] under Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury, and the Star Spica. The Amethyst, as saith Hermes, is under Mars, Jupiter, and the Heart of the Scorpion. The Jasper, which is of divers kinds is under Mars, Jupiter, and the Star Alchamech, the Chrysolite is under the Sun, Venus, and Mercury, as also under the Star which is called the falling Vultur; the Topaze under the Sun, and the Star Elpheia: the Diamond under Mars, and the Head of Algol. In like manner amongst Vegetables, the Hearb [herb] Dragon is under Saturne, and the Celestiall Dragon, Mastick, and Mints, are under Jupiter, and the Sun; but Mastick is also under the Heart of the Lyon, and Mint under the Goat star: Hellebor is dedicated to Mars, and the Head of Algol, Mosse, and Sanders, to the Sun, and Venus: Coriander to Venus, and Saturne. Amongst Animals, the Sea Calf is under the Sun, and Jupiter; The Fox, and Ape under Saturne, and Mercury: and Domesticall Dogs under Mercury, and the Moon. And thus we have shewed more things in these inferiours by their superiours.

Chapter xxxiii. Of the Seals, and Characters of Naturall things.

All Stars have their peculiar Natures, properties, and conditions, the Seals and Characters whereof they produce through their rayes, even in these inferiour things, viz. in Elements, in Stones, in Plants, in Animals, and their members, whence every thing receives from an harmonious disposition, and from its Star shining upon it, some particular Seal, or Character stampt upon it, which is the significator of that Star, or harmony, conteining in it a peculiar vertue, differing from other vertues of the same matter, both generically, specifically, and numerically. Every thing therefore hath its Character pressed upon it by its Star for some particular effect, especially by that Star which doth principally govern it: And these Characters contain, and retain in them the peculiar natures, vertues, and roots of their Stars, and produce the like operations upon other things, on which they are reflected, and stir up, and help the influencies of their Stars, whether they be Planets, or fixed Stars, and figures, and Celestiall signs, viz. as oft as they shall be made in a fit matter, and in their due, and accustomed times. Which ancient wise men considering, such as laboured much in the finding out of the occult properties of things, did set down in writing the images of the Stars, their figures, Seals, Marks, Characters, such as nature her self did describe by the rayes of the Stars, in these inferiour bodies, some in stones, some in Plants, and joynts, and knots of boughs, and some in divers members of Animals. For the Bay-tree, the Lote-tree, and the Marygold [marigold] are Solary Plants, and in their roots, and knots being cut off, shew the Characters of the Sun, so also in the bone, and shoulderblades in Animals: whence there arose a spatulary kind of divining (i.e.) by the shoulder-blades, and in stones, and stony things the Characters, and images of Celestiall things are often found. But seeing that in so great a diversity of things there is not a traditionall knowledge, only in a few things, which humane understanding is able to reach: Therefore leaving those things which are to be found out in Plants, and Stones, and other things, as also, in the members of divers Animals, we shall limit our selves to mans nature only, which seeing it is the compleatest image of the whole universe, containing in it self the whole heavenly harmony, will without all doubt abundantly afford us the Seals, and Characters of all the Stars, and Celestiall Influencies, and those as the more efficacious, which are less differing from the Celestiall nature. But as the number of the Stars is known to God alone, so also their effects, and Seals upon these inferiour things: wherefore no humane intellect is able to attain to the knowledge of them. Whence very few of those things became known to us, which the ancient Philosophers, & Chyromancers [chiromancers] attained to, partly by reason, and partly by experience, and there be many things yet ly hid in the treasury of nture. We shall here in this place note some few Seals,and Characters of the Planets, such as the ancient Chyromancers [chiromancers] knew in the hands of men. These doth Julian call sacred, and divine letters, seeing that by them, according to the holy Scripture is the life of men writ in their hands. And there are in all Nations, and Languages alwaies the same, and like to them, and permanent; to which were added, and found out afterwards many more, as by the ancient, so by latter Chyromancers [chiromancers]. And they that would know them must have recourse to their Volumes. It is sufficient here to shew from whence the Characters of Nature have their originall, and in what things they are to be enquired after.

There follow the Figures of Divine Letters.

The Letters, or Characters of Saturne.


The Letters, or Characters of Jupiter.


The Letters, or Characters of Mars.

For these drawings I have relied on the 1533 Köln (Cologne) Latin edition. In the edition of Gregory Moule (Moule: London, 1651) the "divine letters" of Jupiter are reversed from that in the 1533 edition. In both Abognazar and the Magical Calendar, the "divine letters" of Jupiter are also reversed from those in the 1533 edition. Agrippa's possible source for these is Bartholomeus Cocles, Chyromantie ac phisionomie anastasis (Bononie 1504) -JHP

The Letters, or Characters of the Sun.


The Letters, or Characters of Venus.


The Letters, or Characters of Mercury.


The Letters, or Characters of the Moon.


Chapter xxxiv. How by Naturall things, and their vertues we may draw forth, and attract the influencies, and vertues of Celestiall bodies.

Now if thou desirest to receive vertue from any part of the World, or from any Star, thou shalt (those things being used which belong to this Star) come under its peculiar influence, as Wood is fit to receive Flame, by reason of Sulphur, Pitch, and Oile. Nevertheless when thou dost to any one species of things, or individual, rightly apply many things, which are things of the same subject scattered amongst themselves, conformable to the same Idea, and Star, presently by this matter so opportunely fitted, a singular gift is infused by the Idea, by means of the soul of the world. I say opportunely fitted, viz. under a harmony like to the harmony, which did infuse a certain vertue into the matter. For although things have some vertues, such as we speak of, yet those vertues do so ly [lie] hid that there is seldom any effect produced by them: but as in a grain of Mustardseed, bruised, the sharpness which lay hid is stirred up: and as the heat of the fire doth make letters apparently seen, which before could not be read, that were writ with the juice of an Onion or milk: and letters wrote upon a stone with the fat of a Goat, and altogether unperceived, when the stone is put into Vinegar, appear and shew themselves. And as a blow with a stick stirs up the madness of a Dog, which before lay asleep, so doth the Celestiall harmony disclose vertues lying in the water, stirs them up, strengtheneth them, and makes them manifest, and as I may so say, produceth that into Act, which before was only in power, when things are rightly exposed to it in a Celestiall season. As for example; If thou dost desire to attract vertue from the Sun, and to seek those things that are Solary, amongst Vegetables, Plants, Metals, Stones, and Animals, these things are to be used, and taken chiefly, which in a Solary order are higher. For these are more available: So thou shalt draw a singular gift from the Sun through the beams thereof, being seasonably received together, and through the spirit of the world.

Chapter xxxv. Of the Mixtions of naturall things, one with another, and their benefits.

It is most evident, that in the inferiour nature all the powers of superior bodies are not found comprehended in any one thing, but are dispersed through many kinds of things amongst us: as there are many Solary things, whereof every one doth not contain all the vertues of the Sun: but some have some properties from the Sun, and others othersome. Wherefore it is sometimes necessary that there be mixtions in operations, that if a hundred or a thousand vertues of the Sun were dispersed through so many Plants, Animals, & the like, we may gather all these together, and bring them into one form, in which we shall see all the said vertues, being united, contained. Now there is a twofold vertue in commixtion, one, viz. which was first planted in its parts, and is Celestiall, the other is obtained by a certain, and artificiall mixtion of things mixt amongst themselves, and of the mixtions of them according to certain proportions, such as agree with the heaven under a certain Constellation; And this vertue descends by a certain likeness, and aptness that is in things amongst themselves towards their superiours, and just as much as the following do by degrees correspond with them that go before, where the patient is fitly applyed to its agent. So from a certain composition of Hearbs [herbs], vapours, and such like, made according to naturall Philosophy, and Astronomy, there results a certain common form, endowed with many gifts of the Stars: as in the honey of Bees, that which is gathered out of the juice of innumerable Flowers, and brought into one form, contains the vertue of all, by a kind of divine, and admirable art of the Bees. Yet this is not to be less wondred at which Eudoxus Giudius reports of an artificiall kind of honey, which a certain Nation of Gyants [giants] in Lybia knew how to make out of Flowers, and that very good, and not far inferiour to that of the Bees. For every mixtion, which consists of many severall things, is then most perfect, when it is so firmly compacted in all parts, that it becomes one, is every where firm to it self, and can hardly be dissipated: as we sometimes see stones, and divers bodies to be by a certain naturall power conglutinated, and united, that they seem to be wholly one thing: as we see two trees by grafting to become one, also Oisters [oysters] with stones by a certain occult vertue of nature, and there have been seen some Animals which have been turned into stones, and so united with the substance of the stone, that they seem to make one body, and that also homogeneous. So the tree Ebeny [ebony] is one while wood, and another while stone. When therefore any one makes a mixtion of many matters under the Celestiall influencies, then the variety of Celestiall actions on the one hand, and of naturall powers on the other hand, being joyned together doth indeed cause wonderfull thing, by ointments, by collyries, by fumes, and such like, which viz. are read in the book of Chiramis, Archyta, Democritus, and Hermes, who is named Alchorat, and of many others.

Chapter xxxvi. Of the Union of mixt things, and the introduction of a more noble form, and the Senses of life.

Moreover we must know, that by how much the more noble the form of any thing is, by so much the more prone, and apt it is to receive, and powerfull to act. Then the vertues of things do then become wonderfull, viz. when they are put to matters that are mixed, and prepared in fit seasons, to make them alive, by procuring life for them from the Stars, as also a sensible soul, as a more noble form. For there is so great a power in prepared matters which we see do then receive life, when a perfect mixtion of qualities seems to break the former contrariety. For so much the more perfect life things receive, by how much their temper is more remote from contrariety. Now the Heaven, as a prevalent cause doth from the beginning of every thing to be generated by the concoction, and perfect digestion of the matter, together with life, bestows Celestiall influences, and wonderfull gifts, according to the Capacity that is in that life, and sensible soul to receive more noble, and sublime vertues. For the Celestiall vertue doth otherwise lye asleep, as Sulphur kept from Flame, but in living bodies it doth alwaies burn, as kindled Sulphur, then by its vapour it fils all the places that are next to it; so certain wonderfull works are wrought, such as are read of in the book of Nemith, which is tituled a Book of the Laws of Pluto, because such kind of monstrous generations are not produced according to the Laws of Nature. For we know that of Worms are generated Gnats, of a Horse Waspes, of a Calf, and Ox Bees, of a Crab, his legs being taken of [off], and he buried in the ground, a Scorpion; of a Duck dryed into powder, and put into Water, are generated Frogs; but if it be baked in a Pie, and cut into pieces, and put into a moist place under the ground, Toads are generated of it: of the Hearb [herb] Garden Basill bruised betwixt two stones, are generated Scorpions, and of the hairs of a menstrous Woman put under dung, are bred Serpents; and the hair of a Horse taile put into Water, receiveth life, and is turned into a pernicious Worm. And there is an art wherewith by a Hen sitting upon Eggs may be generated a form like to a man, which I have seen, & know how to make, which Magicians say hath in it wonderfull vertues, and this they call the true Mandrake. You must therefore know which, and what kind of matters are either of nature, or art, begun, or perfected, or compounded of more things, and what Celestiall influencies they are able to receive. For a Congruity of naturall things is sufficient for the receiving of influence from Celestiall; because when nothing doth hinder the Celestials to send forth their lights upon inferiours, they suffer no matter to be destitute of their vertue. Wherefore as much matter as is perfect, and pure, is not unfit to receive the Celestiall influence. For that is the binding and continuity of the matter to the soul of the world, which doth so daily flow in upon things naturall, and all things which nature hath prepared, that it is impossible that a prepared matter should not receive life, or a more noble form.

Chapter xxxvii. How by some certain naturall, and artificiall preparations we may attract certain Celestiall, and vitall Gifts.

Platonists, together with Hermes, say, and Jarchus Brachmanus, and the Mecubals of the Hebrews confess, that all sublunary things are subject to generation, and corruption, and that also there are the same things in the Celestiall world, but after a Celestiall manner, as also in the intellectuall world, but in a far more perfect, and better fashion, and manner, but in the most perfect manner of all in the exemplary. And after this course, that every inferiour thing should in its kind answer its superiour, and through this the supream [Supreme] it self, and receive from heaven that Celestiall power they call the quintessence, or the spirit of the world, or the middle nature, and from the intellectuall world a spirituall and enlivening vertue transcending all qualities whatsoever, and lastly from the exemplary or originall world, through the mediation of the other, according to their degree receive the originall power of the whole perfection. Hence every thing may be aptly reduced from these inferiours to the Stars, from the Stars to their Intelligencies, and from thence to the first cause it self; from the series, and order whereof whole Magick, and all occult Philosophy flowes: For every day some naturall thing is drawn by art, and some divine thing is drawn by nature, which the Egyptians seeing, called Nature a Magicianess, (i.e.) the very Magicall power it self, in the attracting of like by like, and of sutable things by sutable. Now such kind of attractions by the mutuall correspondency of things amongst themselves, of superiours with inferiours, the Grecians called συμπαθιαν [sympathies]. So the earth agrees with cold water, the water with moist Aire, the Aire with Fire, the Fire with the Heaven in water; neither is Fire mixed with water, but by Aire, nor the Aire with the Earth, but by water. So neither is the soul united to the body, but by the spirit, nor the understanding to the spirit but by the soul. So we see that when nature hath framed the body of an infant, by this very preparative she presently fetcheth the spirit from the Universe. This spirit is the instrument to obtain of God the understanding, and mind in the soul, and body, as in wood the dryness is fitted to receive oile, and the oile being imbibed is food for the Fire, the Fire is the vehiculum of light. By these examples you see how by some certain naturall, and artificiall preparations, we are in a capacity to receive certain Celestiall gifts from above. For stones, and Metals have a correspondency with Hearbs [herbs], Hearbs [herbs] with Animals, Animals with the Heavens, the Heavens with Intelligencies, and those with divine properties, and attributes, and with God himself, after whose image, and likness all things are created. Now the first Image of God is the world, of the world, man, of man, beasts, of beasts, the Zeophyton (i.e.) half Animall, and half Plant; of Zeophyton, plants, of plants, metals, of metals, stones. And again in things spirituall, the Plant agrees with a bruit [brute] in Vegetation, a bruit [brute] with a man in sense, man with an Angel in understanding, an Angell with God in immortality. Divinity is annexed to the mind, the mind to the intellect, the intellect to the intention, the intention to the imagination, the imagination to the senses, the senses at last to things. For this is the band, and continuity of nature, that all superior vertue doth flow through every inferiour with a long, and continued series, dispersing its rayes even to the very last things; and inferiours through their superiours, come to the very supream [Supreme] of all. For so inferiours are successively joyned to their superiours, that there proceeds an influence from their head, the first cause, as a certain string stretched out, to the lowermost things of all, of which string if one end be touched, the whole doth presently shake, and such a touch doth sound to the other end, and at the motion of the inferiour, the superiour also is moved, to which the other doth answer, as strings in a Lute well tuned.

Chapter xxxviii. How we may draw not only Celestiall, and vitall, but also certain Intellectuall, and divine gifts from above.

Magicians teach that Celestial gifts may through inferiors being conformable to superiors be drawn down by opportune influencies of the Heaven; and so also by these Celestial [gifts], the Celestial Angels, as they are servants of the Stars, may be procured, and conveyed to us. Iamblichus, Proclus, and Synesius, with the whole School of Platonists confirm, that not only Celestiall, and vitall, but also certain Intellectuall, Angelicall, and divine gifts may be received from above by some certain matters, having a naturall power of divinity (i.e.) which have a naturall correspondency with the superiors, being rightly received, and opportunely gathered together according to the rules of Naturall Philosophy, and Astronomy: And Mercurius Trismegistus writes, that an Image rightly made of certain proper things, appropriated to any one certain Angel, will presently be animated by that Angel. Of the same also Austin [St. Augustine] makes mention in his eighth book De Civitate Dei [the City of God]. For this is the harmony of the world, that things supercelestiall be drawn down by the Celestiall, and the super-naturall [supernatural] by naturall, because there is one operative vertue that is diffused through all kinds of things, by which vertue indeed, as manifest things are produced out of occult causes; so a Magician doth make use of things manifest, to draw forth things that are occult, viz. through the rays of the Stars, through fumes, lights, sounds, and naturall things, which are agreeable to Celestiall: in which, besides corporeall qualities, there is a kind of reason, sense, and harmony, and incorporeall, and divine measures, and orders. So we read that the Ancients were wont often to receive some divine, and wonderfull thing by certain naturall things: so the stone that is bred in the Apple of the eye of a Civet Cat, held under the tongue of a man, is said to make him to divine, or prophesie [prophesy]: The same is Selenite, the Moon stone [moonstone], reported to do, so they say that the Images of Gods may be called up by the stone called Anchitis, and that the Ghosts of the dead may be, being called up, kept up by the stone Synochitis. The like doth the Hearb [herb] Aglauphotis do, which is called Marmorites, growing upon the Marbles of Arabia, as saith Pliny, and the which Magicians use. Also there is an Hearb [herb] called Rheangelida, which Magicians drinking of, can prophesie [prophesy]. Moreover there are some Hearbs [herbs] by which the dead are raised to life; whence Xanthus the Historian tels, that with a certain Hearb [herb] called Balus, a young Dragon being killed, was made alive again, also that by the same a certain man of Tillum, whom a Dragon killed, was restored to life: and Juba reports, that in Arabia a certain man was by a certain Hearb [herb] restored to life. But whether or no any such things can be done indeed upon man by the vertue of Hearbs [herbs], or any other naturall thing, we shall discourse in the following Chapter. Now it is certain, and manifest that such things can be done upon other animals. So if flies, that are drowned, be put into warm ashes, they revive. And Bees being drowned, do in like manner recover life in the juice of the hearb Nip [herb catnip]; and Eels being dead for want of water, if with their whole bodies they be put under mud in vineger [vinegar], and the blood of a Vultur [vulture] being put to them, will all of them in a few dayes recover life. They say that if the fish Echeneis be cut into peices [pieces], and cast into the sea, the parts will within a little time come together, and live. Also we know that the Pellican [pelican] doth restore her yong [young] to life, being killed, with her own blood.

Chap. xxxix. That we may by some certain matters of the world stir up the Gods of the world, and their ministring spirits.

No man is ignorant that evill spirits, by evill, and prophane [profane] Arts may be raised up as Psellus saith Sorcerers are wont to do, whom most detestable and abominable filthiness did follow, and accompany, such as were in times past in the sacrifices of Priapus, and in the worship of the Idoll which was called Panor, to whom they did sacrifice with their privy members [genitals] uncovered. Neither to these is that unlike (if it be true, and not a fable) which is read concerning the detestable heresy of old Church-men, and like to these are manifest in Witches and mischeivous [mischievous] women, which wickednesses the foolish dotage of women is subject to fall into. By these, and such as these evill spirits are raised. As a wicked spirit spake once to Iohn [John] of one Cynops a Sorcerer; all the power, saith he, of Satan dwells there, and he is entred into a confederacy with all the principalities together, and likewise we, with him, and Cynops obeys us, and we again obey him. Again, on the contrary side, no man is ignorant that supercelestiall Angels or spirits may be gained by us through good works, a pure mind, secret prayers, devout humiliation, and the like. Let no man therefore doubt that in like manner by some certain matters of the world, the Gods of the world may be raised by us, or at least the ministring spirits, or servants of these Gods, and as Mercurius [Hermes Trismegistus] saith, the airy spirits, not supercelestiall, much less higher. So we read that the antient [ancient] Priests made statues, and images, foretelling things to come, and infused into them the spirits of the stars, which were not kept there by constraint in some certain matters, but rejoycing [rejoiced] in them, viz. as acknowledging such kinds of matter to be sutable [suitable] to them, they do alwaies and willingly abide in them, and speak, and do wonderfull things by them: no otherwise then evill spirits are wont to do, when they possess mens bodies.

Chap. xl. Of bindings, what sort they are of, and in what wayes they are wont to be done.

WEE have spoken concerning the vertues, and wonderfull efficacy of naturall things. It remains now that we understand a thing of great wonderment: and it is a binding of men into love, or hatred, sickness or health, and such like. Also the binding of thieves, and robbers, that they cannot steale in any place; the binding of Merchants, that they cannot buy, or sell in any place; the binding of an army, that they cannot pass over any bound; the binding of ships, that no winds, though never so strong, shall be able to carry them out of the Haven. Also the binding of a mill, that it can by no force whatsoever be turned round: the binding of a Cisterne, or fountain, that the water cannot be drawn up out of them: The binding of the ground, that it cannot bring forth fruit: the binding of any place, that nothing can be built upon it: The binding of fire, that though it be never so strong, can burn no combustible thing that is put to it. Also the bindings of lightnings, and tempests, that they shall do no hurt. The binding of dogs, that they cannot bark. Also the binding of birds, and wild beasts, that they shall not be able to fly, or run away. And such like as these, which are scarce credible, yet often known by experience. Now there are such kind of bindings as these made by Sorceries, Collyries, Unguents, love potions, by binding to, and hanging up of things, by rings, by charmes, by strong imaginations, and passions, by images, and characters, by inchantments [enchantments], and imprecations, by lights, by sound, by numbers, by words, and names, invocations, sacrifices, by swearing, conjuring, consecrations, devotions, and by divers superstitions, and observations, and such like.

Chap. xli. Of Sorceries, and their power.

The force of Sorceries is reported to be so great, that they are believed to be able to subvert, consume, and change all inferiour things, according Virgils Muse.

Moeris for me these hearbs [herbs] in Pontus chose,
And curious drugs, for there great plenty grows;
I many times, with these, have
Moeris spide [spied]
Chang'd to a wolfe, and in the woods to hide:
From Sepulchres would souls departed charm,
And Corn bear standing from anothers Farm.

Also in an other place, concerning the companions of Ulysses, whom

The cruell Goddess Circe there invests
With fierce aspects, and chang'd to savage beasts.

And a litle after,

When love from Picus Circe could not gaine
Him with her charming wand, and hellish bane
Chang'd to a bird, and spots his speckled wings
With sundry colours

Now, there are some kinds of these sorceries mentioned by Lucan concerning that Sorceress Thessala, calling up ghosts, where he saith,

Here all natures products unfortunate;
Fomr [foam] of mad Dogs, which waters fear and hate;
Guts of the Lynx; Hyena's knot imbred;
The marrow of a Hart with Serpents fed
Were not wanting; no nor the sea Lamprey
Which stops the ships; nor yet the Dragons eye.

And such as Apuleius tells of concerning Pamphila, that Sorceress, endeavouring to procure love; to whom Fotis a certain maid brought the haires of a goat (cut off from a bag or botle [bottle] made with the skin thereof) instead of Bæotius a young mans haires: Now she (saith he) being out of her wits for the young man, goeth up to the tyled rough [tiled roof], and in the upper part thereof makes a great hole open to all the orientall, and other aspects, and most fit for these her arts, and there privately worships, having before furnished her mournfull house with sutable furniture, with all kinds of spices, with plates of Iron with strange words engraven upon them, with sterns of ships that were cast away, and much lamented, and with divers members of buryed carkasses [buried carcasses] cast abroad: here noses, and fingers, there the fleshy nailes of those that were hanged, and in another place the blood of them that were murdered, and their skulls mangled with the teeth of wild beasts; then she offers sacrifices (their inchanted entralls [enchanted entrails] lying panting), and sprinkles them with divers kinds of liquors; sometimes with fountain water, sometimes with cowes milk, sometimes with mountain honey, and mead: Then she ties those haires into knots, and layes them on the fire, with divers odours to be burnt. Then presently with an irresistible power of Magick, and blind force of the Gods, the bodies of those whose haires did smoke, and crash, assume the spirit of a man, and feel, and hear, and walk, and come whither the stink of their haire led them, and insteed of Bæotius the young man, come skipping, and leaping with joy, and love into the house. Austin [Augustine] also reports, that he heard of some women Sorceresses, that were so versed in these kind of arts, that by giving cheese to men, they could presently turn them into working cattell [cattle], and the work being done, restored them into men again.

Chap. xlii. Of the wonderful vertues of some kinds of Sorceries.

Now I will shew you what some of the Sorceries are, that by the example of these there may be a way opened for the consideration of the whole subject of them. Of these therefore the first is menstruous bloud [blood], which, how much power it hath in Sorcery, we will now consider; for, as they say, if it comes over new wine, it makes it soure, and if it doth but touch the Vine it spoyles [spoils] it for ever, and by its very touch it makes all Plants, and Trees barren, and they that be newly set, to die; it burns up all the hearbs [herbs] in the garden, and makes fruit fall off from the Trees, it darkens the brightness of a looking glass, dulls the edges of knives, and razors, dims the beauty of Ivory, and makes Iron presently rusty, it makes brass rust, and smell very strong: it makes dogs mad, if they do but tast [taste] of it, and if they being thus mad shall bite any one, that wound is incurable: it kils [kills] whole hives of Bees, and drives them from the hives that are but touched with it, it makes linnen [linen] black that are boyled [boiled], it makes Mares cast their foal if they do but touch it, and makes women miscarry if they be but smeared with it: it makes Asses barren as long as they eat of the corn that hath been touched with it. The ashes of menstruous clothes, if they be cast upon purple garments that are to be washed, change the colour of them, and takes away colours from flowers. They say that it drives away tertian, and quartane Agues, if it be put into the wooll of a black Ram, and tyed [tied] up in a silver bracelet, as also if the soles of the patients feet be noynted [anointed] therewith, and especially if it be done by the woman her self, the patients not knowing of it; moreover it cures the fits of the falling sickness. But most especially it cures them that are affraid [afraid] of water, or drink after they are bitten with a mad dog, if onely a menstruous cloth be put under the cup. Besides, they report, that if menstruous women shall walk naked about the standing corn, they make all cankars [cankers], worms, beetles, flyes [flies], and all hurtfull things fall off from the corn: but they must take heed that they do it before Sun rising [sunrise], or else they will make the corn to wither. Also they say that they are able to expell hail, tempests, and lightnings, more of which Pliny makes mention of. Know this, that they are a greater poyson [poison] if they happen in the decrease of the Moon, and yet much greater, if they happen betwixt the decrease, and change of the Moon: But if they happen in the Eclypse [eclipse] of the Moon or Sun, they are an incurable poyson [poison]. But they are of greatest force of all, when they happen in the first years, even in the years of virginity, for if they do but touch the posts of the house there can no mischeif [mischief] take effect in it. Also they say that the threads of any garment touched therewith, cannot be burnt, and if they be cast into the fire, it will spread no further. Also it is said that the root of Peony being given with Castor [oil], and smeared over with a menstruous cloth, cureth the falling sickness. Moreover if the stomack [stomach] of a Hart be burnt or rosted [roasted], and to it be put a perfuming made with a menstruous cloth, it will make crass-bows [cross-bows] useless for the killing of any game: The haires of a menstruous woman put under dung, breed Serpents: and if they be burnt, will drive away Serpents with their smell. So great a poysonous [poisonous] force is in them, that they are poyson [poison] to poysonous [poisonous] creatures. There is also Hippomanes, which amongst Sorceries is not the least taken notice of, and it is a little venemous [venomous] piece of flesh as big as a fig, and black, which is in the forehead of a Colt newly foaled, which unless the Mare her self doth presently eat, she will never after love her foals, or let it suck. And for this cause they say there is a most wonderful power in it to procure love, if it be powdered, and drank in a cup with the blood of him that is in love. There is also another Sorcery, which is called by the same name, viz. Hippomanes, viz. a venemous [venomous] humour, issuing out of the share of a Mare what time she desires a horse, of which Virgill makes mention, when he sings

Hence comes that poison which the Shepherds call
Hippomanes, and from Mares groines doth fall,
The wofull [woeful] bane of cruell stepdames use,
And with a charme 'mongst powerfull drugs infuse.

Of this doth Juvenall the Satyrist [Satirist] make mention.

Hippomanes, poysons [poisons] that boyled [boiled] are, and charmes
Are given to Sons in law, with such like harmes.

Apollonius also in his Argonauticks makes mention of the hearb [herb] of Prometheus, which he saith groweth from corrupt blood dropping upon the earth, whilest the Vultur [vulture] was gnawing upon the liver of Prometheus upon the hill Caucasus. The flowre [flower] of this hearb [herb], he saith, is like Saffron, having a double stalk hanging out, one farther then the other the length of a cubit, the root under the earth, as flesh newly cut, sends forth a blackish juice as it were of a beech; with which, saith he, if any one shall after he hath performed his devotion to Proserpina, smear over his body, he cannot be hurt either with sword, or fire. Also Saxo Gramaticus [Grammaticus] writes, that there was a certain man called Froton, who had a garment, which when he had put on he could not be hurt with the point or edge of any weapon. The civet Cat also abounds with Sorceries: for, as Pliny reports, the posts of a dore [door] being touched with her blood, the Arts of Juglers [jugglers] and Sorcerers are so invallid, that the Gods cannot be called up, and will by no means be perswaded to talk with them. Also that they that are anoynted [anointed] with the ashes of the ankle bone of her left foot, being decocted with the blood of a Weesell [weasel] shall become odious to all. The same also is done with the eye, being decocted. Also it is said that the straight gut is administered against the injustice, and corruption of Princes, and great men in power, and for success of Petitions, and to conduce to ending of suits, and controversies, if any one hath never so little of it about him, and that if it be bound unto the left arm, it is such a present [?] charm, that if any man do but look upon a woman, it will make her follow him presently; and that the skin of her [i.e. the civet cat's] forehead doth withstand bewitchings. They say also that the blood of a Basilisk, which they call the blood of Saturn, hath such great force in Sorcery, that it procures for him that carryes it about him, good success of his Petitions, from great men in power, and of his prayers from God, and also remedies of diseases, and grant of any priveledge [privilege]. They say also that a tyck [tick], if it be pulled out of the left eare of a dog, and if be it altogether black, hath great vertue in the prognostick of life, for if the sick party shall answer him that brought it in, who standing at his feet, & shall ask of him concerning his disease, there is certain hope of life, and that he shall dye [die], if he make no answer. They say also, that a stone that is bit with a mad dog hath power to cause discord, if it be put in drink, and that he shall not be barked at by dogs, that puts the tongue of a dog in his shooe [shoe] under his great toe, especially if the hearb [herb] of the same name, viz. houndstongue be joyned with it. And that a membrane of the secondines of a dog doth the same; and that dogs will shun him that hath a dogs heart. And Pliny reports that there is a red toad that lives in bryers [briars], and brambles, and is full of Sorceries and doth wonderfull things: for the little bone which is in his left side, being cast into cold water, makes it presently very hot, by which also the rage of dogs is restrained, and their love is procured, if it be put in drink; and if it be bound to any one, it stirreth up lust. On the contrary, the litle bone which is on the right side, makes hot water cold, and that it can never be hot again, unless that be taken out, also it is said to cure quartanes if it be bound to the sick in a snakes skin, as also all other feavors [fevers], and restrain love, and lust. And that the spleen, and heart is an effectual remedy against the poisons of the said Toad. Thus much Pliny writes. Also it is said that the sword, with which a man is slain, hath wonderfull power in Sorceries: For if the snaffle of the bridle, or spurs be made of it, they say that with these any horse, though never so wild, may be tamed, and gentled: and that if a Horse should be shod with shooes [shoes] made with it, he would be most swift and fleet, and never, though never so hard rod [rode], tire. But yet they will that some Characters, and names should be written upon it. They say also, if any man shall dip a sword, wherewith men were beheaded, in wine; and the sick drink thereof, he shall be cured of his quartane. They say also that a cup of liquor being made with the brains of a Bear, and drank out of the skull, shall make him that drinks it, to be as fierce, and as raging as a Bear, and think himself to be changed into a Bear, and judge all things he sees to be Bears, and so to continue in that madness, untill the force of that draught shall be dissolved, no other distemper being all the while perceived in him.

Chap. xliii. Of Perfumes, or Suffumigations, their manner, and power.

Some Suffumigations also, or perfumings, that are proper to the Stars, are of great force for the opportune receiving of Celestiall gifts under the rayes of the Stars, in as much as they do strongly work upon the Aire, and breath. For our breath is very much changed by such kind of vapours, if both vapours be of another like: The Aire also being through the said vapours easily moved, or affected with the qualities of inferiours, or those Celestiall, daily, and quickly penetrating our breast, and vitals, doth wonderfully reduce us to the like qualities; Wherefore Suffumigations are wont to be used to [by] them that are about to Sooth-say [soothsay], for to affect their fancy, which indeed being duly appropriated to any certain Deities, do fit us to receive divine inspiration: So they say that fumes made with Lin-seed [linseed], and Flea-bane seed, and roots of Violets, and Parsly [parsley], doth make one to fore-see [foresee] things to come, and doth conduce to prophecying. Let no man wonder how great things suffumigations can do in the Aire, especially when he shall with Porphyrius [Porphyry] consider, that by certain vapours exhaling from proper suffumigations, airy spirits are presently raised, as also Thundrings, and Lightnings, and such like things. As the Liver of a Chamelion [chameleon] being burnt on the top of the house, doth, as it is manifest, raise showers, and Lightnings. In like manner the head, and throat, if they be burnt with Oken [oaken] wood, cause Storms, and Lightnings. There are also suffumigations under opportune influencies of Stars, that make the images of spirits forthwith appear in the Aire, or elswhere. So they say, that if of Coriander, Smallage, Henbane, and hemlock be made a fume, that spirits will presently come together; hence they are called spirits Hearbs [herbs]. Also it is said that a fume made of the root of the reedy Hearb [herb] Sagapen, with the juice of Hemlock, and Henbane, and the Hearb [herb] Tapsus Barbatus, red Sanders, and black Poppy, makes spirits and strange shapes appear: and if Smallage be added to them, chaseth away spirits from any place, and destroyes their visions. In like manner a fume made of Calamint, Peony, Mints, and Palma Christi, drives away all evil spirits, and vain imaginations. Moreover it is said that by certain fumes certain Animals are gathered together, and put to flight, as Pliny mentions concerning the stone Liparis, that with the fume thereof all beasts are called out; so the bones in the upper part of the throat of a Hart, being burnt, gather all the Serpents together, but the horn of the Hart being burnt doth with its fume chase them all away. The same doth a fume of the feathers of Peacocks. Also the lungs of an Asse being burnt, puts all poisonous things to flight; the fume of the burnt hoof of a Horse drives away Mice, the same doth the hoof of a Mule, with which also if it be the hoof of the left foot, Flies are driven away; And they say, if a house or any place be smoaked [smoked] with the gall of a Cutle fish [cuttle-fish], made into a confection with red Storax, Roses, and Lignum-aloes, and if then there be some Sea Water, or blood cast into that place, the whole house will seem to be full of Water, or blood; and if some Earth of plowed ground be cast there, the Earth will seem to quake. Now such kinds of vapours we must conceive do infect any body, and infuse a vertue into it, which doth continue long, even as any contagious, or poisonous vapour of the Pestilence, being kept for two yeers [years] in the Wall of a house, infect the inhabitants, and as the contagion of Pestilence, or Leprosie [leprosy] lying hid in a garment, doth long after infect him that wears it. Therefore were certain suffumigations used to images, rings, and such like instruments of Magick, and hid treasures, and as Porphyrius [Porphyry] saith, very effectually. So they say, if any one shall hide Gold, or Silver, or any other pretious [precious] thing, the Moon being in conjunction with the Sun, and shall fume the place with Coriander, Saffron, Henbane, Smallage, and black Poppy, of each a like quantity, bruised together, and tempered with the juice of Hemlock, that which is so hid shall never be found, or taken away, and that spirits shall continually keep it: and if any one shall endeavour to take it away, he shall be hurt by them, and shall fall into a frensie [frenzy].

And Hermes saith, that there is nothing like the fume of Sperma Ceti [spermaceti] for the raising of spirits: wherefore if a fume be made of that, and Lignum-aloes, Pepperwort, Musk, Saffron, red Storax tempered together, with the blood of a Lapwing, it will quickly gather airy spirits together,1 and if it be used about the graves of the dead, it gathers together spirits, and the Ghosts of the dead. So, as often as we direct any work to the Sun, we must make suffumigations with Solary things, if to the Moon, with Lunary things, and so of the rest. And we must know, that as there is a contrariety and enmity in Stars, and spirits, so also in suffumigations unto the same. So there is also a contrariety betwixt Lignum-aloes, and Sulphur, Frankincense, and Quick-silver [quicksilver], and spirits that are raised by the fume of Lignum-aloes, are allayed by the burning of Sulphur. As Proclus gives an example of a spirit, which was wont to appear in the form of a Lion, but by the setting of a Cock before it, vanished away, because there is a contrariety betwixt a Cock, and a Lyon [lion], and so the like consideration, and practise is to be observed concerning such like things.

1. Et dicit Hermes quod sperma ceti in suffitu non habet sibi par ad alliciendos daemones: quare, si ex eo et lignum aloes, costo, musco, croco, thymiamata, cum sanguine upupae distemperatis, fiat suffitus, valde cito congregat spiritus aereos. ["And Hermes said that the spermaceti has no equal for attracting the daemons, wherefore, if you make an incense from it, along with lignum aloes, costus, musk, crocus, and frankincense, combined with the blood of a hoopoe, when fumigated will very quickly congregate the aerial spirits."] This is from Raziel 2:3, 7, ff 27v-28r, 34v, e.g. Sl. 3846 140r.

Chap. xliv. The Composition of some fumes appropriated to the Planets.

We make a suffumigation for the Sun in this manner, viz. of Saffron, Amber-gryse [=ambergris],1 Musk, Lignum-aloes, Lignum-balsaim [lignum balsam], the fruit of the Laurell, Cloves, Myrrh, and Frankincense, all which being bruised, and mixt in such a proportion as may make a sweet odour, must be incorporated with the brain of an Eagle, or the blood of a white Cock, after the manner of Pils [pills], or Trochiscks [troches].

1. Lat. reads ambra i.e. ambergris. -JHP

For the Moon we make a suffumigation of the head of a Frog dryed [dried], the eyes of a Bull, the seed of white Poppy, Frankincense, and Camphir [camphor], which must be incorporated with Menstruous blood, or the blood of a Goose.

For Saturne take the seed of black Poppy, of Henbane, root of Mandrake, the Load-stone [loadstone], and Myrrh, and make them up with the brain of a Cat, or the blood of a Bat.

For Jupiter take the seed of Ash, Lignum-aloes, Storax, the gum Benjamin [benzoin], the Lazule [lazuli] stone, the tops of the feathers of a Peacock, and incorporate them with the blood of a Stork, or a Swallow, or the brain of a Hart.

For Mars take Euphorbium, Bdellium, gum Armoniack, the roots of both Hellebors [hellebores], the Load stone [loadstone], and a little Sulphur, and incorporate them all with the brain of a Hart, the blood of a Man, and the blood of a black Cat.

For Venus take Musk, Amber-gryse [=ambergris], Lignum-aloes, red Roses, and red Corall, and make them up with the brain of Sparrows, and the blood of Pigeons.

For Mercury take Mastick, Frankincense, Cloves, and the Hearb [herb] Cinquefoile, and the stone Achates, and incorporate them all with the brain of a Fox, or Weesel [weasel], and the blood of a Pie [magpie].

Besides, to Saturne are appropriated for fumes all odoriferous roots, as Pepper-wort root, &c. and the Frankincense tree: to Jupiter odoriferous fruits, as Nutmegs, Cloves: to Mars all odoriferous wood, as Sanders [sandalwood], Cypress, Lignum-balsaim [lignum balsam], and Lignum-aloes: to the Sun, all Gums, Frankincense, Mastick, Benjamin, Storax, Laudanum [labdanum, i.e. Cistus], Amber-gryse [=ambergris],1 and Musk; to Venus Flowers, as Roses, Violets, Saffron, and such like: to Mercury all Pils [peels] of Wood and fruit, as Cinnamon, Lignum Cassia, Mace, Citron pill [lemon peel], and Bayberries, and whatsoever seeds are odoriferous; to the Moon the leaves of all Vegetables, as the leaf Indum, the leaves of the Myrtle, and Bay-tree. Know also, that according to the opinion of the Magicians, in every good matter, as love, good will, and the like, there must be a good fume, odoriferous, and pretious [precious]; and in every evill matter, as hatred, anger, misery, and the like, there must be a stinking fume, that is of no worth. The twelve Signes also of the Zodiack have their proper fumes, as Aries hath Myrrh, Taurus, Pepper-wort [pepperwort], Gemini, Mastick; Cancer, Camphir [camphor], Leo, Frankincense, Virgo Sanders [sandalwood], Libra, Galbanum, Scorpio, Opoponax, Sagittarius, Lignum-aloes, Capricornus, Benjamin [benzoin], Aquarius, Euphorbium, Pisces, red Storax. But Hermes describes the most powerfull fume to be, viz. that which is compounded of the seven Aromaticks, according to the powers of the seven Planets, for it receives from Saturne, Pepper-wort [pepperwort], from Jupiter, Nutmeg, from Mars, Lignum-aloes, from the Sun, Mastick, from Venus Saffron, from Mercury, Cinnamon, and from the Moon, the Myrtle.

1. Again, Latin ambra is ambergris (a whale product), not what we call "amber" (fossilized resin — Lat. electrum.)

Chap. xlv. Of Collyries, Unctions, Love-Medicines, and their vertues.

Moreover Collyries, and Unguents, conveying the vertues of things Naturall, and Celestiall to our spirit, can multiply, transmute, transfigure, and transform it accordingly, as also transpose those vertues which are in them into it, that so it cannot act only upon its own body, but also upon that which is neer [near] it, and affect that by visible rayes, charmes, and by touching it, with some like quality. For because our spirit is the subtile, pure lucid, airy, and unctuous vapour of the blood; it is therefore fit to make Collyries of the like vapours, which are more sutable [suitable] to our spirit in subtance, for then by reason of their likeness, they do the more stir up, attract, and transform the spirit. The like vertues have certain ointments, and other confections. Hence by the touch sometimes sickness, poisonings, and love is induced; some things, as the hands, or garments being anointed: Also by kisses, some things being held in the mouth, love is induced, as in Virgil we read that Venus prayes Cupid

That when glad Dido hugs him in her lap
At royall feasts, crown'd with the cheering Grape,
When she imbracing [embracing], shall sweet kisses give,
Inspire hid Flame, with deadly bane deceive,
He would
----- -----

Now the sight, because it perceives more purely, and cleerly [clearly] then the other senses, and fastening in us the marks of things more acutely, and deeply, doth most of all, and before others agree with the Phantastick spirit, as is apparent in dreams, when things seen do more often present themselves to us then things heard, or any thing coming under the other senses. Therefore when Collyries transform visuall spirits, that spirit doth easily affect the imagination, which indeed being affected with divers species, and forms, transmits the same by the same spirit unto the outward sense of sight, by which occasion there is caused in it a perception of such species, and forms in that manner, as if it were moved by externall objects, that there seem to be seen terrible images, and spirits, and such like: so there are made Collyries, making us forthwith to see the images of spirits in the Aire, or elsewhere, as I know how to make of the gall of a man, and the eyes of a black Cat, and of some other things. The like is made also of the blood of a Lapwing, of a Bat, and of a Goat, and they say, if a smooth shining piece of Steel be smeered [smeared] over with the juice of Mugwort, and made to fume, it will make invocated spirits to be seen in it. So also there are some suffumigations, or unctions, which make men speak in their sleep, to walk, and to do those things which are done by men that are awake, and sometimes to do those things, which men that are awake cannot, or dare not do. Some there are that make us to hear horrid, or delectable sounds, and such like. And this is the cause why Maniacall, and Melancholy men believe they see, and hear those things without, which their imagination doth only fancy within, hence they fear things not to be feared, and fall into wonderfull, and most false suspicions, and fly when none pursueth them, are angry, and contend, no body being present, and fear where no fear is. Such like passions also can magicall confections induce, by Suffumigations, by Collyries, by Unguents, by potions, by poisons, by lamps, and lights, by looking glasses, by images, enchantments, charms, sounds, and Musick. Also by divers rites, observations, ceremonies, religions, and superstitions; all which shall be handled in their places. And not only by these kind of arts, passions, apparitions, and images induced, but also things themselves, which are really changed, and transfigured into divers forms, as the Poet relates of Proteus, Periclimenus, Acheloas, and Merra, the daughter of Erisichthon: So also Circe changed the companions of Ulysses, & of old in the sacrifices of Jupiter Lycæus, the men that tasted of the inwards of the sacrifices, were turned into Wolves, which Pliny saith, befell a certain man called Demarchus, the same opinion was Austin [Augustine] of: for he saith, whilest he was in Italy, he heard of some women that by giving Sorceries in cheese to travellors [travelers], turned them into working Catle [cattle], and when they had done such work as they would have them, turned them into men again, and that this befell a certain Father called Prestantius. The Scriptures themselves testify that Pharao's [pharaoh's] Sorcerers turned their rods into Serpents, and water into blood, and did such like things.

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