This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson; updated Mar 22, 2023.

Compare copy in Wellcome Collection.

ספר מפתה שלמה

Sepher Maphteah Shelomoh

(Book of the Key of Solomon)

An exact facsimile of
an original book of magic in Hebrew

with illustrations
now produced for the first time


Hermann Gollancz, M.A., D. Lit.

Goldsmid Professor of Hebrew,
University College, London.

Oxford University Press

London Edinburgh Glascow New York Toronto Melbourne
Humphrey Milford



In my description or outline of the volume now presented, published in l903 under the title מפתה שלמה, Clavicula Salomonis, I remarked that the chief work which is supposed to have served as the oracle of all sorcerers throughout history was the famous Clavicula Salomonis.

King Solomon who, according to tradition, was king of the whole world and who, according to the statement in Ecclesiastes, could render all the joys and delights of life subservient to his will, stood forth as the pattern and prototype for all who hankered after the things which they regarded as the pleasurable and desirable objects of existence.

The legend runs that it was by means of magical conjurations that King Solomon the Wise was enabled to procure for himself all the delights and pleasures which he sought.

Gedaliah Ibn Jahya, referring in his book Shalsheleth-Hakabala to works of this description bearing on the magical art, cites one by name, äîìù äúôî -- the very equivalent of Clavicula Salomonis. To quote his words:

'It is said that, in addition to the works composed by Solomon as contained in Holy Writ, he wrote books on the nature of trees and plants, on wild beasts, animals, and fowl: he was further the author of writings and conjurations against Evil Agents in a work called The Key of Solomon.'

In the words of the great scholar of the Faust-legend, Karl Engel, Solomon plays the same rôle in ancient Jewish Magic as Faust does in the Christian; it is, therefore, not to be wondered at that modern books on magic are attributed to him.

In comparatively modern times what are supposed to be translations or adaptations of the original Hebrew Key appeared in various Romance languages, not to speak of German or English versions. With regard, however, to the Hebrew text itself, it seemed, as far as our knowledge went, to be altogether lost; it was, in fact, given up as lost. (Cf. Mathers, p. v: The Key of Solomon the King, 1889.)

It chanced some years ago that I became possessed of a fine copy of the Hebrew MS. of what appears to be this very Key of Solomon. I came across the volume among the books belonging to my father, the late Rev. Samuel Marcus Gollancz.

I have since seen one or two collections of a similar character, but they are by no means in the same good condition or clear handwriting, nor at all equal in bulk to the MS. before me.

Considering its remarkable value for the folklorist and antiquarian, I have now determined to produce the same in its entirety. In the following pages I have given an exact reproduction of the original MS. in my possession, even as regards size; a facsimile by collotype process -- a method rendered the more necessary on account of the numerous diagrams and illustrations with which the MS. is interspersed.

In these brief introductory remarks I do not propose to repeat the details which I published concerning the work in 1903; at the time, I intended this small publication to be a fairly full description, or better perhaps a skeleton outline, of this practically unique compilation. I shall but briefly summarize the conclusions then arrived at, and leave the reader to consult the original Hebrew for fuller information by the aid of the brochure which I issued ten years ago.

Furthermore, both in order to serve as examples of the contents of this work, and also as a guide in deciphering the Hebrew cursive script of an Italo-Spanish character, in which this copy is written, I am giving in this Introduction a transcript in square Hebrew character of a few of the passages occurring herein, of some the text simply, of others text and translation, or translation alone, reserving the publication of a complete rendering of the original for another occasion. (Pagination is given throughout in the usual figures instead of the Hebrew ones found in the original.)

As far as the scope of this compilation is concerned, it is most varied in character. Its references extend to Philosophy, Medicine, and Alchemy; Astronomy and Mathematics; Theology and Physiognomy; Logic, Music, and Politics.

The general impression conveyed by a perusal of the work itself is that it is Jewish in tone. Some of the invocations read as beautiful and pure Hebrew prayers, and could only have been composed by a Hebrew, whilst the spirit underlying the invocations, and even the formulae themselves, strike one at frequent intervals as non-Jewish. The Jewish character of the work as a whole is thus often affected by the foreign elements introduced. Some parts, in fact, read as translations from some Western source, or adaptations from Arabic sources. The Book, like most of these magical writings, is a true image of that syncretism so characteristic of this class of literature.

The supposed Salomonic origin of the work, and Solomon's connexion with the Magic Art, may be seen from passages such as the following:

The title-page of this copy (though mutilated as regards the chief word, for obvious reasons, as I have shown in my brochure, p. 17) points to King Solomon as author. It speaks of the book as that of 'Solomon, son of David, King of Israel, who sat on the throne of the Lord, and reigned over those on high and those below, his wisdom being greater than that of all the children of the East'.

That our MS., over 200 years old, is but a copy of an older one is clear from internal evidence, as I have indicated in several passages of my former 'description' (pp.16, 25, 36).

The opening passage of the MS. (fol 1a) is as follows:

After this introductory passage come twenty-six 'prayers' (i.e. Invocations), some in pure Hebrew, others consisting simply of Cabalistic names. I here reproduce the first seven with translation

First Prayer

AGLA (the initial letters of the Hebrew words Ata, Gibbor, Leolam, Adonai,

meaning, 'Thou art mighty for ever, Adonai'), Light of Truth and Life, Merciful Judge, preserve me and help me by the power of Mercy and [Thy attribute] 'Long-suffering' in the course of this holy vision, and be Thou gracious unto me. Amen!

Second Prayer.

MONOUN (probably means 'O Witness!'). O Lord, Holy One, Father of Power, God of the Universe, before whom are all the created ones and the uncreated, Source of all formations, whose eyes saw the non-existent world, of whose beauteous grace heaven and earth are full, and whose ears listen to every creature. Before they existed, He saw them all in His Book were all creatures inscribed, the strong and the weak. Endow me, Thy servant, this day with understanding, lowly pressed as I am both in body and spirit beneath Thy feet, for the sake of Thy Holy Spirit. Be gracious unto me, and raise me up, so that I may behold Thy Majesty. Grant unto my actions this day Thy blessing and the confirmation of Thy watchfulness and may Thy holy revelation serve to enlighten me. Amen!

Third Prayer.

TETRAGRAMMATON. (The invocation contained on fol. 52b * might be read in conjunction with this term.)

Look Thou down, O Lord my God, Merciful Father, for ever directing aright all existing things. Thou, O God, seest and lookest upon every act of man and his angels. Dwell, I pray Thee, this day upon my good and meritorious work. I beseech Thee imploringly that Thy abundant kindness be with me this day, to make manifest unto me this holy revelation; and that Thou mayest endow me to overflowing with strength and power for the sake of Thy great and Holy Name, Thou, my Lord God, who puttest Thy praise upon the lips of those that love Thee, Thy men of righteousness. Amen!


Fourth Prayer.

O my God, God the Creator, Adonai, Father of all hidden formations; O Merciful One, surrounded with majesty and light, who before the world existed governed all things: behold, I prostrate myself before Thy splendour and Thy mercies which cannot be told, that Thou mayest enlighten me by the power of Thy holy angels with Thy holy revelation and with a clear perception; and by the names of Thy holy angels may my mind and memory be enlightened by the holy effects of the vision and holy and clear appearance, Amen! O Lord of Truth (?).

Fifth Prayer.

HEKLAISTAI. Adonai, Holy One, Compassionate Father, who triest the hearts which are in heaven and on earth, the sea and the depths, and all that is in them; they unto whom Thou hast granted favour, Thou before whom no thought or deed can be hidden! By the glorified and holy names of Thy angels, grant me my desire and the privilege of this revelation without evil imagining; try (favour) me in Thy lovingkindness. Amen!

Sixth Prayer.

AMPHIMAIKON. Merciful Creator, who formest all souls in abundance, and givest all the good things that are favourable, ordering them and guiding them; hear now, and make me understand Thy blessings in a humble spirit and with crushed heart, to accomplish through the multitude of Thy kindnesses that which I desire. Amen!

Seventh Prayer.

LMIHARAH. All-powerful One, Father of Kindnesses, Guide of Creatures, Judge and Refuge, Lord of lords, who in Thy lovingkindness didst grant unto Thy holy and beloved one wisdom and grace; be gracious unto me that I may behold Thy splendour. Do Thou, judging and informing all things, enlighten my heart, I pray Thee, this day with the flashes (? 1. é÷øáá) of Thy brilliancy and Thy purity, so that I may see Thy face and Thy tremendous glory, for in these things do I delight. Amen!

After the twenty-six 'prayers' we have, on fol. 3 a, the following highly interesting prescriptions or formulae:

First PAV VHV mentioned by Elisha. ABGITS MBKJIES:

This name, APUTEL, the priest bore on his breast on entering the Holy of Holies on the Fast (or 'fasting'). It revives the dead, that is, when you make mention of it by word of mouth. When written on a brass or golden vessel, it rescues from all manner of weapon and loosens every form of evil, so much so that it will lay all evil, and have power over everything that is done in the world.

BANUKITT: Say this regularly after thy devotions, and thou shalt be afraid of no man.

JH HV HV: Elijah delivered this to Elisha in writing; and when placed in water, and a man possessed of a devil drank thereof, that man escaped; and if you give of that water to a woman in childbirth, she will speedily recover. If you engrave it on silver and say, 'Let the eyes of men be bound', you will become invisible.

ABSNIK: Written and placed under the bed-pillow will bring whomsoever you wish in a dream, who will acquaint you with your heart's desire.

NKB NAKAR: This was the name of which Noah made mention against the waters, and Abraham against the fire.

JCHSH SHASH: Count three days, then say it twice every morning; and eleven times CHANUNA, and fourteen times in the evening outside the city, and thou wilt bring whomsoever thou desirest.

ANAZA ANSH: Write this on the small twig of a nut-tree, and beat the sea or stream with it, and it will become dry.

LALUN LLUN: Is of avail for those possessed of an evil spirit, as soon as they are placed upon them.

YHVH: Elijah gave to Elisha, and is of avail against every ill, as soon as it is placed upon a man.

TTRAEL: Is of value for the sight of a child, when pronounced and placed upon it.

BJT BJAT: When worn, delivers from all ill and from evil persons. Finis.

At the foot of fol. 5 b (3 lines from the bottom) we have the following:

'Solomon remarks by Divine inspiration: God alone is One, and there is one Faith only -- the exalted one which the Creator desired to be revealed unto mankind and to be distributed among the multitude; inasmuch as the angel Samaël said to Solomon, "This shalt thou give to the people of Israel", that is to say, Shmuiel, the Great Prince, Chief of all the angels and all the Ten Classes; and he gave it further unto others. And it was pleasing in the eyes of the Lord, and Re commanded him to sanctify it (?), and adjured him in the following manner.'

As I observed above, the chief word of the title-page, in fact of the title itself, has been mutilated, cut out; so that if it were not for the accident that the expression is repeated in the body of the work, we might have been at a loss to know the exact title of the work before us. This we have in fol. 6 b, where the writer remarks:

äúôîäî éðùä øôñä øæåòä úøæòá ìéçúàå

'I will now begin, with the help of the Helper, the second book of the Key (MAPHTEAH)'. And it occurs twice in the Appendix (fol. 3 b), once in the phrase:

ä''ìòù äùòù äúôîä øôñá

'in the book of the Key which Solomon, peace be to him, composed'.

This compilation then, according to its full title, would be known as äîìù äúôî øôñ, The Book of the Key of Solomon.

That the Magic Art was looked upon as a serious occupation, and was kept as an exclusive possession, may be gauged from the paragraph (fol. 6 b) containing the following regulation or order:

'I beg and command any one into whose hands this compilation may fall, that he will give it to no man unless he be of a retiring disposition, able to keep a secret, energetic in the performance of this kind of work; and I adjure him by the Living God, the Creator of the Universe, that in the same manner as lie would guard his own soul, he will guard this book, and not reveal it to such as are unfit. And should he not listen (to this admonition) I place my supplication before Him who has graciously imparted this knowledge to me, that He shall not suffer him to prosper in all the actions and desires which he seeks to bring about. Amen, May this be His will.'

The MAGIC CIRCLE which plays so important a part in these operations is described or referred to in various passages, such as ff. 3 b sqq., 9 a, 14 a-15 a, 23 b, 59b, 65b-66a.

The ïåñéâ 'Experiment' or 'Operation' ('Practice') is dealt with on ff. 7 a-8 b. 9 a, 55 a, 56 b, 70 a-70 b; and in the Appendix, ff. 1 a-2 b, and 3 b sq. It may be of special interest to give in full, with a translation, the 'Operation' of Simon Magus, contained on fol. 55 a:

The Operation of SIMON MAGUS.

The 'Operation' of SIMON MAGUS should be carried out on a Thursday or a Tuesday in the evening. In the first place, you should have a candle of virgin wax burning; then make a circle with a sword (as is shown below), and mark the four sides with the mark of Solomon and the seals of Jupiter and Venus (as you will see further on); then write the names of the four sides of the world, i.e. East, West, north, and South Having done this, stand in the middle of the circle, and say three times, neither more nor less, this form of conjuration:

'I adjure you, O Lucifer, and all thy associates, by the Living God, by the Angels above and below, by So and So, and in the name of A and B, &c.; I furthermore adjure you by Belzebuk:, your Lord; I moreover adjure you by Satan, in whose hands are the Keys of Gehinnom. I adjure you by Lucifer, your King; I adjure you by the mighty deep; I adjure you by the Law of the Lord, that you shall have no power to stand in the air, nor beneath the air; nor on the earth, or beneath the earth; nor in the water, or under the water; nor in the heavens, or beneath the heavens; nor in any place of the world; but that thou shalt come forthwith unto this place, thou, O Lucifer, with thy associates, or that thou shalt send three of thy servants, who shall tell me the truth concerning all that I shall inquire of them, in the name of AGLA, AGLAJI, AGLTA, AGLAUT, AGLTUN, and in the name of ALPHA, V, HE, VJV, JUD, HE, MAHL, ALIHAI, ELOKIM, ZEBAOTH, ELYON, &c.'

Beware, too, that you fall not asleep; for immediately Lucifer with his companions will come, or he will send three of his messengers or associates who will say unto you, 'What dost thou want or desire and wherefore hast thou brought us?' Then at once ask of them three things that you wish, and they will tell you. After the reply bid them farewell in the manner known.

It is meet that you should perform this on Thursday or Tuesday while the moon is on the increase (lit. 'increasing her light'), and it should only be practised, if possible, in the months February, May, August, or October, when the sun and moon are equal in number [of hours (?)], otherwise at full moon. Now this is an unfailing experiment, tested by many; but it is requisite that you should be perfectly clean and pure in body and soul. Do not ask more than three questions; for if you ask more, they will not reply nor answer. Understand, too, that whatever grade or kind of spirits they may be, they never answer more than three questions.

I, the writer (so it was written), have tested this 'Experiment', and found it true.

The concluding statement in connexion with another such 'Operation' (ff. 56 a-56 b), headed 'An Operation tested and true', contains these remarkable words: 'This Operation has been learnt from a certain demon who placed herself at the service of the writer (so it was written), and taught him this process, which is true.'

Another characteristic 'Operation' we have on if. 70 a-70 b. It runs as follows:

The 'Operation' BARAKON.

This may be carried out in any place, with associates or without, better without. In the first place you must have a sword, very sharp and glittering, and make with this sword a circle. Have all the requisites ready, so that you should not have to go out of the circle, when you have once entered it. Having entered it, take the said sword, and fix it in front of you within the circle. Afterwards you must have the hide of a dog unborn and the blood of a hawk (?), and write on this hide with this blood these characters in two lines one above the other . . . . . . . Understand that having conversed once with the spirit, there is no further need of the circle; and if you wish to employ this test, you need but take the hide in your right hand and say this Psalm three times, after which repeat this conjuration:

'I adjure thee, O Spirit, called BARAKON, by the faith that is in thee, 'together with thy associate the demon, and by the power and truth of the Living God, true and merciful, and by that Angel who, on the Day of Judgment, shall with the sound of the trumpets say: "Rise, all ye men and women that are dead", and he shall say, "Come, Come, Come unto the righteous judgment before God, Creator of All".

'Furthermore, I adjure thee, BARAKON, by these holy angels, their ministers, and their Signs; by the name Raphaël and his minister, the Sun; Gabriel and his minister, the Moon; Samaël and his minister, Mars; Michaël and his minister, Venus; Kaphsiel and his minister, Saturn; (I adjure thee) to appear before me quickly in human form without harming either my body or my soul and members, by the power of the Living God of Life and Truth, and He will subdue thee so that thou come to reply to me.

'I next adjure thee by the twelve Signs of the Zodiac, Aries, Taurus, Gemini. Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces; and by thee, O Gabriel, the angel who gave strength unto Samson, and who inspired with wisdom King Solomon, peace be to him! I further adjure thee, BARAKON, by the Holy Names ADONAI, A. B., and by the name CHUZU, at the sound of which when proclaimed at midnight all the dead, both good and bad, shall rise in the twinkling of an eye; and by the name SOTER, by means of which the Creator, ADONAI ELOHIM, shall cause all the stones of all the buildings of the world to tumble one against the other, so that they shall be everturned and engage in war together; then shall the human creatures "say unto the mountains, Come, fall upon us, and to the hills, cover us" (cf. Hosea x. 8).

'And I adjure thee by the Ineffable Name, with which ELOHIM after the Day of Judgment shall slay the Satan and his select ones, and all the wicked of heart shall be put into a stream of fire; whilst his own elect shall be glad and rejoice in the glory and pride of the Living God, and there they shall find their delight, and rest the everlasting rest.

'Again, I adjure thee, O BARAKON, by the spirit of Him on high (? for העניו, l. העלין), together with thy associates, also by the Eternal Being, blessed and glorified in the recesses of the high places, tremendous in His world and the heaven of heavens, served by all His creatures for ever and unto all generations, that thou come speedily in the form of a little man. I further adjure thee by the holy ministering angels and by all the Names of the Lord, that thou come quickly, that no obstacle prevent thee, nor any cause whatsoever. I further adjure thee, BARAKON, by all the things created by the Lord on high or below (and he shall detail the foremost creatures) that you come immediately and without delay in the form of a little man, without hurt, trembling, or fear whatsoever, either to my body or my soul or to any of my members. I again adjure thee by the extraordinary portion of joy which the Lord allotted to the Angel Michael and the Angel Gabriel in the grade of holiness.'

Thereupon immediately there will come the spirit that understands and listen your commands, and tell you all you desire. He will come in human form at all times that you wish to speak to him; as for thee, ask whatever thou choosest, and he will answer truthfully, in humility, and with cheerful heart.

Of Conjurations we have the following typical form (fol. 23 b-24 a):

'I furthermore conjure you in the name of the Creator of All, the Fashioner of All, and the Maker of All, the Possessor of All, the Beginning and End of All, possessing and none possessing Him, the Fashioner and not fashioning Him, the producer and none producing Him, Lord and none lord to Him, Ruler and none ruling Him, He the cause of existence, and none the cause of His Existence, the First and no first to Him, the Last and none after Him; the Creator, and all are His creatures; the Fashioner, and all are His formations; the Possessor, and all are His possessions; the Maker, and all things are made by Him; the Worker, and all are His works; Lord, and all are His servants; Ruler, and over all is His dominion; the Source of Existence, and all exist by Him; the Cause, and all is the effect of this Cause; all shall pass away, but He lives and remains to all everlasting, Selah! (I adjure you) that you stir not from this spot until you fulfil my desire and will, my command and request, which is So and So, &c.'

Another class of conjuration, different in so far that it adjures by means of Cabbalistic Names in place of being a direct appeal to the 'Creator of All', will be found on fol. 45 a:

'We furthermore conjure thee and decree concerning thee PILIT (or BILID) son of ANT, son of NASHARON, son of' SHAMLON, son of MINIKUAM son of JUKAR, son of SHAMSHA, son of NAADAME, son of VATALE, son of VASHVASH, son of ASHRAUD, son of MARA, son of ASHMEDAI, son of SHUNAROX (or SHOMROX), who were princes over all the Caesars, for he ruled in the days of Solomon and in the days of the Prophets, and ruled over you by reason of great deeds -- thee do we adjure by force and all who are near thee. We further adjure thee, O BILT, that thou come as a help for the sake of the glory of thy father ANT, and for that of thy mother NAEMAH, with favour and not in anger, with joy and not in sorrow, with truth and not with falsehood, to do that which I have desired, &c.'

A characteristic counterpart to such request will be found in the reply on fol. 46 a:

'I, BILT the Great, the Eastern One, am ready to respond to every request which thou makest, and to fulfil thy will, and wish, and longing entirely; ask of me, and it shall be done forthwith; I, ASHMEDAI, King of the South, the Great Philosopher. Wouldst thou know concerning the past, present, and future, behold I am ready to answer, and to solve all thy doubts.'

One of the most interesting, perhaps, of all the Conjurations, is the one occurring in the Appendix, fol. 6 a-6 b. It runs as follows:

A Specific for Pain in the Eyes.

'In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who sitteth upon the Cherubim. The Holy One, blessed be He, shone forth in the Garden of Eden, and the Angels after Him. When they bad entered into the midst of the Garden of Eden, their faces were sad, and they said one to the other, "Wherefore is the Holy One, blessed be He, troubled? He is angered on account of the low state of A, son of B, who has a sore or bad water in his eye". Thereupon the angels addressed the Holy One, saying: "As Thou hast it in Thy power to heal him, may it be Thy will to restore him to health!" And I will conjure this sore or this water in the eye of A, son of B. by the name ADONAI ZEBAOTH, God of Israel, and by the name EHYH ASHER EHYH, and by the name METATRON, and by the seventy-two Names of the Holy One, and by the name ADRIBUN, and by the name SHABHI (according to another reading, SHABTI), and by the name SHMUIEL, the Great Prince, and by the name of the angel SHAMSHIEL, and by the name of ELIAS, ENOCH, the prophet, and by the name MICHAEL, GABRIEL, and RAPHAEL, and by the name of HADARMIEL, PISHON, MITMON, SIGRON, the Holy Angels, and in the name of all the angels of the Upper Region, and in the name of the holy SERAPHIM, HAYOTH and OPHANIM, and in the name of the Ten Generations, and in the name of the Ten Scrolls of the Law, and in the name of the Ten Sephiroth, and in the name of the angels that minister in the presence of the Exalted Holy One, blessed be lie; and in the name of bread, water, and wine, and all that the Holy One, blessed be He, hath created in His world; (I adjure you) whatever you be, whether film or spot or water, or white, or malady, or grit, or thorn, any sort of darkness, or worm, that you go forth or die, and depart out of the eye, or from these eyes; or as regards any other thing that can be blotted out, that it go forth out of these eyes, from the eye to the flesh, and from the flesh to the bone, and from the bone to the skin, and from the skin to the hair, and from the hair to the earth, in the name of ADONAI, God Zebaoth.'

Let him do this three times a day, and each time let him sprinkle with his third finger of the water, and drop one drop 'in the Name' (it seems to me -- adds the copyist -- the author meant 'in the eye'); let him do this nine days or twenty-one days, and with the help of God he will be healed. Finis.

Concerning the influence of the planetary system upon the life of man, we have, on fol. 52 b, the following:

Saturn has of man's body the bones, the millet, the right ear, and the urinary part.

Jupiter has of man's body the liver, the left ear, and the ribs.

Mars has of man's body the gall, the right nostril, the sinews, and the kidneys.

The Sun has of man's body the heart and the right eye during the day, and the opposite during the night, the brain in the head, the arteries, and the right side of the body.

Venus has of man's body the flesh and fat, the private part and semen in man.

Mercury has of man's body the tongue, mouth, and sinews.

The Moon has of man's body the left eye during the day, and the opposite during the night, the lung. the throat, the upper bowel, the womb, and all the left side of the body.

The details connected with the fumigation relating to these planets, to which reference is made on fol. 37 b, and more particularly the form of the Prayer, are specially interesting. We read:

'Red sandal-wood for the Sun, aloe for the Moon, pepper for Mars, mastix for Mercury, saffron for Jupiter, costus for Venus, brimstone for Saturn. Thereafter the priest shall bless them, and the priest shall say this Prayer: O God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, put Thy blessing upon these perfumes, so as to enlarge the power of their fragrance and their efficacy, in order that no enemy shall be able to enter them, nor any other forms, in the Name of Adonai, the Living God, and Ruler for generation upon generation. Amen!'

Among other interesting items we might note, that in the paragraph under the heading 'Chapter on Theft' (fol. 70 b) there is the diagram of an eye on fol. 71 a, surrounded on the upper side with the curious expressions Got Magot, the Old French spelling of Gog Magog.

The last two prescriptions in the present collection are as follows:

1. To see a light burning in the midst of the water, take a wax candle and write these names upon it; then cast it into the water. They are AIKA, AKVA, AKA. PTIYA.

2. To overpower a king or ruler, or whomsoever thou desirest, to do thy will.

Before all things wash thy face, hands, and feet; read the Shema (i.e. Deut. vi. 4); then stand on thy left foot, and repeat three times this Conjuration:

'I call upon you ye demons, who are appointed to coerce humankind, whose names are SHANSHIMON, SHANAUN, SHANGDIEL, SANGDIEL, TAMPALTI, VVISHTROM, VHSHR, ARMNIEL, EL; and I further call upon you, O BEEL, ZEBUB, ZRON, ROHI, KIBAISH, BINTIVASH, and all your set appointed for this purpose. I call upon you and adjure you, I decree and ordain upon you by these Names of God, formed of the 72 (names), and by the Name of the 216 letters, being the sum-total of the three verses (of Exodus xiv. 19, 20, 21) beginning with the words òñéå (And he journeyed), àáéå (And he came), èéå (And he stretched)-let him make mention of all the names), that you go this very night to A, son of B, that you stand over him, and intimidate him, and overwhelm him, and show him my likeness, and tell him to beware of his life and do all my will, which is so and so; that should he not perform it, he will in that week die a sudden death. And thou shalt adjure him in a dream to do so. Should he be unwilling to swear, you smite him, and stand over him, and frighten him until he swears that he will do so. And you shall coerce him all that night by dream after dream and dream within dream, until he be entirely willing to do my bidding, and come during the day to seek me out (or send after me to call me) literally, so as to do my will. And the zealous and speedy runner shall run before you, namely BOLIM, and you shall hasten and go after him to do unto him in this matter as you did unto Laban, the Syrian, and unto Abimelech, King of the Philistines. I further decree upon you by the power of the Name compounded of (the words) Bereshith (i.e. 'In the beginning', Gen. i. 1) till Vo-Vouhu (i.e. 'and void ', ibid. i. 2), that is, the Name of the 72 (letters) -- he should mention the Name -- that ye shall have no rest, nor ease, neither in heaven, nor on earth, neither in the air, nor in the water, nor in any spot in all the worlds which our Creator hath formed, until ye complete this matter in accordance with my wish and desire, by the Name that was written on the forehead of Aaron, the priest -- that ye go directly and immediately. Finis.'

What offices the various Spirits are prepared to perform are as interesting as they are varied. For example, we read (ff. 46 a-48 a) of such ready and valuable services as the following:

'Lo, we are prepared to revive the dead, &c.'

'Lo, we are prepared to place ships and boats at your disposal, on the seas and on the streams as you desire, &c.'

'Lo, we are prepared to break the locks of wardrobes and safes containing hidden treasures, &c.'

'Lo, we are prepared to obey your commands, and wherever you please there shall meet 10,000 or even a million men in arms., &c.'

There is a paragraph (fol. 66 a) telling how to shut up a spirit in a ring, so that you may converse with it by day and by night., and it will teach you if you wish all that can be done in the world'. There are directions (fol 67 a) for 'rendering yourself invisible'; for 'eluding prison and fetters'; telling how you can injure any enemy (fol. 68 b); for one who has taken poison; for one petitioning a lord or ruler (ff. 6 a-6 b, Appendix).

The divers other paraphernalia required in the performance of the magical acts, such as the knife, the sickle, water and hyssop, light and fire, &c. are all minutely described; the conjurations for the days of the week, and the relation of the Signs of the Zodiac to the art of Magic, are set forth in detail.

The Mystic Alphabet or 'Alphabet of the Angels' is given on fol. 1 a of the Appendix; and on fol. 40 b there is, touching angels, an excerpt from the Book of the Angel Rasiel -- a work that has long been regarded as perhaps the standard compilation of practical Magic. We can adduce no better example in support of this statement than the final prayer contained in our Key, which, extending over nearly four pages (ff. 71 a-72 b), apostrophizes God as the 'King', going through the entire Alphabet a greater or less number of times in order to describe His distinctive attributes.

A similar passage occurs in the Book of Rasiel (towards the end), but with this difference ; whilst the Book of Rasiel gives about 140 forms referring to the Creator as the King of the Universe, the compilation before us has about 360 such forms. Our version is, therefore, more complete than that which occurs in Rasiel. Besides, the variations themselves are most interesting and instructive; and what strikes one at first sight is the use of expressions throughout this long passage in our Key identical with those occurring in the Jewish Prayer Book, the original source of which may be traced to the Hebrew Scriptures themselves.

H. G.


Title page tp
Introductory remarks by the author 1 a
'Prayers' and Invocations (26 in number) 1 a-3 a
On the composition of the Divine Seal 3 b-5 b
The preparation of the one performing the act 5 b-6 a
A propitiatory 'Prayer' 6 a-6 b
The Second Book of the Key 7 a
The various ways to perform the acts and operations, at what hours, on what conditions, and by whom, also the 'Prayer' 7 a-9 a
The associates and disciples, the Conjuration in the case of a boy or girl 9 a-9 b
How many associates are required 10 a
Concerning the nine days of preparation 10 b-l1 a
Ablution and recital of certain 'Prayers' 11 a-1l b
Blessing the Salt 11 b-12 b
The place for performing the act and the 'Prayer' 12 b-13 b
[Concerning the Magical instruments and other requisites] The knife and swords (13 b); the sickle (14 a); entering the circles (14 a); fumigating (15 a); the water and hyssop (15 b); the lights and fire (16 a); the pen and ink (16 b); the blood of the bat (17 a); virgin and unborn parchment (17 b); the wax or mortar for making the candles or images (18 b); the needle and iron handle (19 a); on various other pareliments or paper (19 b); on the written characters (20 a); and the silk or linen garment (20 a). 13 b-20 a
The Armrl (Almrl); diagram with pentacles; diagram of candlestick with candle 20 b
The Seals of the twelve Constellations 21 a-23 a
The wondrous Circles; Conjurations of Barkiel. 23 b-25 b
Book of the images of the twelve hours of the day [which are the twelve degrees of the Armrl] 25 b-27 b
Concerning the images of the night (twelve hours) 27 b-28 b
Conjuration of the powers of the twelve signs of the Zodiac by means of the Almdl 29 a-35 a
The Book of Light 35 a
Containing the names given to the hours of day and night, the names and seals of the angels for the days of the week, the names of the angel for the four seasons of the year, the names of the Sun and Moon according to the four seasons, followed by Conjurations for the days of the week 36 a-36 b
Concerning the Spirits of the air that rule during the seven days 36 b-37 b
Fumigation for the afore-mentioned stars 37 b
Conjuring the fire in which the incense is put 37 b
On the garments and pentacles which must be sewn to the garments 38 a
Conjuration of the Spirits 38 a-39 b
'Prayer' on donning the garment 39 b-40 a
Names and seals of angels, stars, and planets from the Book of Angel of the Angel Rasiel 40 b-41 b
Book of the Seal of BILT (BILID) 42 a-43 a
Conjurations of BILT 43 b-46 a
Replies of divers spirits and their seals 46 a-48 a
Concerning the sanctity of the nine Kandariri(talismans), (revealed unto King Solomon) 48 a-49 a
Names of the angels that minister before BOAL (BOEL) 49 b
Angels of the twelve stations and of the six firmaments, and their workings 49 b-52 b
A general Conjuration 52 b
The seven Planets and the human body 52 b
Book of the (twenty-eight) stations of the Moon 53 a-54 b
Colours of the Planets 54 b
Book of 'Practices'; The 'Practice' or 'Operation' of Simon Magus 55 a-55 b
A remarkable and true recipe for love by the philosopher Adriano 55 b
Another recipe, tested and true 56 a-56 b
Recipe for seeing a spirit in a mirror 56 b
To conjure or sanctify a ring on the Sabbath-day 57 a
To escape from prison in a special boat 57 b-58 b
Illustration of boat and other diagrams 59 a-59 b
Chapter on going through the air in a cloud 60 a-62 a
Planetary invocations, and the method described 62 a-64 b
The Seal of the terrestrial spirits 64 b
Composition of the whistling-instrument 64 b-65 a
On subduing and binding the spirits 65 a-65 b
Illustration of the Magic Circle 66 a
On keeping a spirit shut up in a ring (66 a); On seeing spirits and conversing with them (66 b); on how to become invisible (67 a); on prison and fetters (67 a); on opening all locks (67 b); on obtaining an answer from the spirits (67 b); on injuring an enemy (68 b); on bringing the good spirit to tell thee what thou wishest, except as regards women and evil-doing, which thou must not ask (69 a) 66 a-69 b
The 'Operation' BARAKON 70 a-70 b
To discover theft 70 b
Concluding 'Prayer' 71 a-72 b


Further 'Operations' and Conjurations 1 a-6 a
Specific for malady of the eyes 6 a
For one who has swallowed poison 6 b
To petition a lord or chief 6 b
Tradition from Rabbi Shalom 6 b
To coerce a king or ruler or whomsoever thou wishest to do thy will 6 b-7 a

For a fuller description of the Contents, the reader is referred to the afore-mentioned brochure, Clavicula Salomonis a Hebrew manuscript newly discovered and now described by Hermann Gollancz.. J. Kauffmann, Frankfurt a. M., D. Nutt, London, 1903. The following corrections should be noted: -- In the title-page (p. 17) for ומשגב  read ומשנה on p. 21 delete the words 'the 10th is missing'; on p. 32 (8 ll. from the bottom) for יעפל read יפעל on p. 34 (8 and 9 ll. from the bottom) for שעלה read שאלה, and for עזרתי read מזרחי; on p. 42 (5 ll. from the bottom) for יושעו read יושמו and on p. 45 (3 ll. from the bottom) for מהארון ועשר read מארון ומשר .