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Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa: Of Occult Philosophy, Book III (part 1)

This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson, Copyright © 2000. Updated April 25, 2019. All rights reserved.

Three Books of



Henry Cornelius Agrippa



Chapter i: Of the necessity, power, and profit of Religion.
Chapter ii: Of concealing of those things which are secret in religion.
Chapter iii: What dignification is required, that one may be a true magician and a worker of miracles.
Chapter iv: Of the two helps of Ceremonial magic, religion and superstition.
Chapter v: Of the three guides of Religion, which bring us to the path of truth.
Chapter vi: How by these guides the soul of man ascendeth up into the Divine nature, and is made a worker of Miracles.
Chapter vii: That the knowledge of the true God is necessary for a Magician, and what the old Magicians and Philosophers have thought concerning God.
Chapter viii: What the Ancient Philosophers have thought concerning the Divine Trinity.
Chapter ix: What the true and most Orthodox faith is concerning God and the most holy Trinity.
Chapter x: Of Divine emanations, which the Hebrews call Numerations, others attributes; The gentiles gods and Deities; and of the ten Sephiroths and ten most sacred names of God which rule them, and the interpretation of them.
Chapter xi: Of the Divine names, and their power and vertue.
Chapter xii: Of the influence of the divine names through all the middle causes into these inferior things.
Chapter xiii: Of the members of God, and of their influence on our members.
Chapter xiv: Of the Gods of the gentiles, and souls of the Celestiall bodies, and what places were consecrated in times past, and to what Deities.
Chapter xv: What our Theologians think concerning the Celestiall souls.
Chapter xvi: Of Intelligences and spirits, and of the threefold kind of them, and of their diverse names, and of Infernall and subterraneall spirits.
Chapter xvii: Of these according to the opinion of the Theologians.
Chapter xviii: Of the orders of evil spirits, and of their fall, and divers natures.
Chapter xix: Of the bodies of the Devils.
Chapter xx: Of the annoyance of evil spirits, and the preservation we have by good spirits.
Chapter xxi: Of obeying a proper Genius, and of the searching out the nature thereof.
Chapter xxii: That there is a threefold keeper of man, and from whence each of them proceed.
Chapter xxiii: Of the tongue of Angels, and of their speaking amongst themselves, and with us.
Chapter xxiv: Of the names of Spirits, and their various imposition; and of the Spirits that are set over the Stars, Signs, Corners of the Heaven, and the Elements.
Chapter xxv: How the Hebrew Mecubals draw forth the sacred names of Angels out of the sacred writ, and of the seventie two Angels, which bear the name of God, with the Tables of Ziruph, and the Commutations of letters, and numbers.
Chapter xxvi: Of finding out of the names of spirits, and Genius's from the disposition of Celestiall bodies.
Chapter xxvii: Of the calculating Art of such names by the tradition of Cabalists.
Chapter xxviii: How sometimes names of Spirits are taken from those things over which they are set.
Chapter xxix: Of the Characters and Seals of spirits.
Chapter xxx: Another manner of making Characters, delivered by Cabalists.
Chapter xxxi: There is yet another fashion of Characters, and concerning marks of spirits which are received by revelation.
Chapter xxxii: How good spirits may be called up by us, and how evil spirits may be overcome by us.
Chapter xxxiii: Of the bonds of spirits, and of their adjurations, and castings out.
Chapter xxxiv: Of the Animasticall order, and the Heros.
Chapter xxxv: Of the Mortall and Terrestrial Gods.
Chapter xxxvi: Of Man, how he was created after the Image of God.
Chapter xxxvii: Of mans soul and through what means it is joyned [joined] to the body.
Chapter xxxviii: What Divine gifts man receiveth from above, from the severall Orders of the Intelligences and the heavens.
Chapter xxxix: How the superior Influences, seing they are good by nature, are depraved in these inferior thing, and are made causes of evil.
Chapter xl: That on every man a divine character is imprinted, by the vertue of which man can attain the working of miracles.
Chapter xli: What concerning man after death, diverse Opinions.
Chapter xlii: By what wayes the Magicians and Necromancers do think they can call forth the souls of the dead.
Chapter xliii: Of the power of mans soul, in the mind, reason and imagination.
Chapter xliv: Of the degrees of souls, and their destruction, or Immortality.
Chapter xlv: Of Soothsaying, and Phrensie [phrensy].
Chapter xlvi: Of the first kind of phrensie [phrensy] from the Muses.
Chapter xlvii: Of the second kinde from Dionysius [Dionysus].
Chapter xlviii: Of the third kind of phrensie [phrensy] from Apollo.
Chapter xlix: Of the fourth kinde of Phrensie [phrensy], from Venus.
Chapter l: Of rapture, and extasie [ecstasy], and soothsayings, which happen to them which are taken with the falling sickness, or with a swoune [swoon], or to them in an agonie [agony].
Chapter li: Of Prophetical Dreams.
Chapter lii: Of Lots and marks possessing the sure power of Oracles.
Chapter liii: How he that will receive Oracles must dispose himself.
Chapter liv: Of cleanness, and how to be observed.
Chapter lv: Of abstinence, fastings, chastity, solitariness, the tranquillity and ascent of the mind.
Chapter lvi: Of Penitency, and Almes.
Chapter lvii: Of those things which being outwardly administred conduce to Expiation.
Chapter lviii: Of Adorations, and vowes.
Chapter lix: Of sacrifices and oblations, and their kinds and manners.
Chapter lx: What imprecations, and rites the ancients were wont to use in sacrifices, and oblations.
Chapter lxi: How these things must be performed, as to God, so as to inferiour dieties [deities].
Chapter lxii: Of Consecrations, and their manner.
Chapter lxiii: What things may be called holy, what consecrated, and how these become so betwixt us and the Dieties [deities]; and of sacred times.
Chapter lxiv: Of certain Religious observations, ceremonies, and rites of perfumings, unctions, and such like.
Chapter lxv: The Conclusion of the whole Work.
To The Reverend Father, and Doctor of Divinity, ...
Unto the Same Man.
To a Certain Friend of the King's Court.
The Censure, or Retraction...

To the Most Renowned and Illustrious Prince, Hermannus of Wyda, Prince Elector, Duke of Westphalia, and Angaria, Lord Arch-Bishop of Colonia, and Paderborne, his most gracious Lord, Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettes-heim.


It is a very excellent opinion of the Ancient Magicians (most Illustrious Prince) that we ought to labour in nothing more in this life, then that we degenerate not from the Excellency of the mind, by which we come neerest to God and put on the Divine nature: least at any time our mind waxing dull by vain idleness should decline to the frailty of our earthly body and vices of the flesh: so we should loose it, as it were cast down by the dark precipiced of perverse lusts. Wherefore we ought so to order our mind, that it by it self being mindfull of its own dignity and excellency, should alwayes both Think, do and operate something worthy of it self; But the knowledge of the Divine science, doth only and very powerfully perform this for us. When we by the remembrance of its majesty being alwaies busied in Divine studies do every moment contemplate Divine things, by a sage and diligent inquisition, and by all the degrees of the creatures ascending even to the Archetype himself, do draw from him the infallible vertue of all things, which those that neglect, trusting only to naturall and worldly things, are wont often to be confounded by divers errors & fallacies, and very oft to be deceived by evill spirits; But the understanding of Divine things, purgeth the mind from errors, and rendreth it Divine, giveth infallible power to our works, and driveth far the deceith and obstacles of all evil spirits, and together subjects them to our commands; Yea it compels even good Angels and all the powers of the world unto our service viz. the virtue of our works being drawn from the Archetype himself, To whom when we ascend all creatures necessarily obey us, and all the quire [choir] of heaven do follow us: For (as Homer saith) none of the gods durst remain in their seats, Jove being moved; and then presently he ruleth (as saith Aristophanes) by one of the gods, whose right it is to execute his commands, who then out of his duty doth manage our petitions according to our desire. Seeing therefore (most Illustrious Prince) you have a Divine and immortall soul given you, which seeing the goodness of the Divine providence, a well disposed fate, and the bounty of nature have in such manner gifted, that by the acuteness of your understanding, and perfectness of senses you are able to view, search, contemplate, discern and pierce thorow the pleasant theaters of naturall things, the sublime house of the heavens, and the most difficult passages of Divine things: I being bound to you by the band of these your great vertues am so far a debtor as to communicate without envy by the true account of all opinions, Those mysteries of Divine and Ceremoniall Magick which I have truly learned, and not to hide the knowledge of those things, whatsoever concerning these matters the Isiaci those old Priests of the Egyptians, and Caldeans [Chaldaeans], the ancient prophets of the Babylonians, the Cabalists, the Divine Magicians of the Hebrews, also the Orpheans, Pythagoreans and Platonists, the profoundest Philosophers of Greece, further what the Bragmanni [Brahmans] of the Indians, the Gymnosophists of Ethiopia, and the uncorrupted Theologians of our Religion have delivered, and by what force of words, power of Seals, by what charms of Benedictions and imprecations, and by what vertue of observations they in old times wrought so stupendious and wonderfull prodigies, imitating to you in this third book of Occult Philosophy and exposing to the light those things which have been buryed in the dust of antiquity and involved in the obscurity of oblivion, as in Cymmerian darkness even to this day. We present therefore now to you, a compleat and perfect work in these three books of Occult Philosophy or Magick, Which we have perfected with diligent care, and bvery great labor and pains both of mind and body; and though it be untrimmed in respect of words, yet its most elaborate truly in respect of the matter: Wherefore I desire this one favor, that you would not expect the grace of an Oration, or the elegancy of speech in these books, which we long since wrote in our youth when our speech was as yet rough, and our language rude; and now we have respect, not to the stile of an Oration, but only to the series or order of sentences; We have studyed the less elegancy of speech, abundance of matter succeeding in the place thereof; and we suppose we have sufficiently satisfied our duty, if we shall to the utmost of our power perform those things we have promised to declare concerning the secrets of Magick, and have freed our conscience from a due debt. But seeing without doubt, many scoffing Sophisters will conspire against me, especially of those who boast themselves to be allyed to God, and fully replenished with Divinity, and presum to censure the leaves of the Sibilles [Sybils], and will undertake to judge and condemn to the fire these our works even before they have read or rightly understood any thing of them (because such lettice agrees not with their lips, and such sweet oyntment [ointment] with their nose and also by reason of that sparke of hatred long since conceived against me, and scarce containing it self under the ashes.) Therefore (most Illustrious Prince and wise Prelate) we further submit this work ascribed by me to the merits of your vertue, and now made yours, to your censure, and commend it to your protection, That, if the base and perfidious Sophisters would defame it, by the grosse madness of their envy and malice, you would by the prespicacy of your discretion and candor of judgement, happily protect and defend it.

Farewell and prosper.

The third and last Book of Magick,
or Occult Philosophy; written by
Henry Cornelius Agrippa.

Book III.

Chapter i. Of the necessity, power, and profit of Religion.

NOw it is time to turn our pen to higher matters, and to that part of Magick which teacheth us to know and perfectly understand the rules of Religion, and how we ought to obtain the truth by Divine Religion, and how rightly to prepare our mind and spirit, by which only we can comprehend the truth; for it is a common opinion of the Magicians, that unless the mind and spirit be in good case, the body cannot be in good health: But then a man to be truly sound when body and soul are so coupled, and agree together, that the firmness of the mind and spirit be not inferior to the powers of the body; But a firm and stout mind (saith Hermes) can we not otherwise obtain, than by integrity of life, by piety, and last of all, by Divine Religion: for holy Religion purgeth the mind, and maketh it Divine, it helpeth nature, and strengtheneth naturall powers, as a Physitian [physician] helpeth the health of the body, and a Husbandman the strength of the earth. Whosoever therefore, Religion being laid aside, do consider only in naturall things, are wont very oft to be deceived by evill spirits; but from the knowledge of Religion, the contempt and cure of vices ariseth, and a safeguard against evil spirits; To conclude, nothing is more pleasant and acceptable to God than a man perfectly pious, and truly Religious, who so far excelleth other men, as he himself is distant from the Immortall gods. Therefore we ought, being first purged, to offer and commend our selves to divine piety and Religion; and then our senses being asleep, with a quiet mind to expect that Divine Ambrosian Nectar (Nectar I say, which Zachary the prophet calleth Wine making maids merry) praising and adoring that supercelestiiall Bacchus, the chiefest ruler of the gods and priests, the author of regeneration, whom the old poets sang was twice born, from whom rivers most Divine flow into our hearts.

Chapter ii. Of concealing of those things which are secret in Religion.

Whosoever therefore thou art that now desireth to study thisd science, keep silence and constantly conceal within the secret closets of your Religious breast, so holy a determination; for (as Mercury saith) to publish to the knowledge of many a speech throughly filled with so great majesty of the Deity, is a sign of an irreligious spirit; and Divine Plato commanded, that holy and secret mysteries should not be divulged to the people; Pythagoras also and Porphyrius consecrated their followers to a Religious silence; Orpheus also, which a certain terrible authority of Religion did exact an oath of silence, and from those he did initiate to the Ceremonies of holy things: Whence in the verses concerning the holy word he sings,

You, that Admirers are of vertue, stay,
Consider well what I to you shall say.
But you, that sacred laws contemn, prophane?
Away from hence, return no more again.
But thou O
Museus whose mind is high,
Observe my words, and read them with thine eye,
And them within thy sacred breast repone,
And in thy journey, think of God alone
The Author of all things, that cannot dye,
Of whom we shall not treate ---

So in Virgil we read of the Sybill

The goddess comes, hence, hence, all ye prophane,
The Prophet cries, and from her grove refrain.

Hence also in celebrating the holy mysteries of Ceres Eleusine, they only were admitted to be initiated, the cryer proclaiming the prophane vulgar to depart; and in Esdras we read this precept concerning the Cabalisticall secret of the Hebrews, declared in these verses, Thou shalt deliver those books to the wise men of the people, whose hearts thou knowest can comprehend them, and keep those secrets. Therefore the Religious volumes of the Egyptians & those belonging to the secrets of their ceremonies, were made of consecrated paper; in these they did write down leters [letters] which might not easily be known, which they call holy. Macrobius Marcellinus and others say, they were called Hieroglyphics, least perchance the writings of this kind should be known to the prophane, which also Apuleius testifies in these words, saying, The sacrifice being ended, from a secret retyred closet he bringeth forth certain books noted with obscure letters, affording compendious words of the conceived speech, partly by the figures of beasts of this kind, partly by figures full of knots, and crooked in the manner of a wheel & set thick, twining about like vine tendrels, the reading thereby being defended from the curiosity of the prophane; Therefore we shall be worthy scholars of this science, if we be silent and hide those things which are secret in religion, for the promise of silence (as saith Tertullian) is due to Religion; but they which do otherwise are in very great danger, whence Apuleius saith concerning secrets of holy Writs; I would tell it you, if it were lawfull to tell it; you should know it; if it were lawfull to hear it; but both ears and tongue would contract the same guilt of rash curiosity. So we read Theodorus the tragick poet, when he would have referred somethings of the mysteries of the Jews Scripture to a certain fable, was deprived of sight. Theopompus also who began to translate somethings out of the Divine law into the Greek tongue, was presently troubled in mind and spirit, whence afterward earnestly desiring God, wherefore this had happened to him, received an answer in a dream, because he had basely polluted Divine things, by setting them forth in publike [public]. One Numenius also being very curious of hidden things, incurred the displeasure of the Divine powers, because he interpreted the holy mysteries of the goddesse Eleusina and published them for he dreamed that the goddesses of Eleusis stood in a whores habit before the Brothell house, which when he wondred at, they wrathfully answered, that they were by him violently drawn from their modestly and prostituted everywhere to all commers, by which he was admonished, that the Ceremonies of the gods ought not to be divulged. Therefore it hath alwaies been the great care of the Ancients to wrap up the mysteries of God and nature, and hide them with diverse Aenigmaes [enigmas], which law the Indians, Brachmans [Brahmans], Æthiopians, Persians, and Egyptians also observed; hence Mercurius, Orpheus, and all the ancient Poets and Philosophers, Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato Aristoxenus, Ammonius, kept them inviolably. Hence Plotinus and Origenes and the other disciples of Ammonius (as Porphyry relates in his book of the education and Discipline of Plotinus) sware, never to set forth the Decrees of their master. And because Plotinus, brake his oath made to Ammonius, and published his mysteries, for the punishment of his transgression, he was consumed (as they say) by the Horrible disease of Lice. Crist also himself, while he lived on earth, spoke after that manner and fashion that only the more intimate disciples should understand the mystery of the word of God, but the other should perceive the parables only: commanding moreover that holy things should not be given to Dogs, nor pearles cast to Swine: Therefore the Prophet saith, I have hid thy words in my heart, that I might not sin against thee. Therefore it is not fit that those secrets which are amongst a few wise men, and communicated by mouth only, should be publikly written. Wherefor you will pardon me, If I pass over in silence many and the chiefest secret mysteries of Ceremonial Magick. I suppose I shal do enough, if I open those things which are necessary to be known, and you by the reading of this book go not away altogether empty of these mysteries; but on that condition let these things be communicated to you, on which Dionysius bound Timothy, that they which perceive these Secrets, would not expose them to the unworthy, but gather them together amongst wise men, and keep them with that reverence that is due to them. Furthermore I would also warne you in the beginning, that even as the divine powers detest publike things and profane, and love secrecy: So every Magical experiment fleeth the publike, seeks to be hid, is strengthened by silence, but is destroyed by publicationm neither doth any compleate effect follow after; all these things suffer losse, when they are poured into prating and incredulous minds; therefore it behoveth a Magicall operator, if he would get fruit from this art, to be secret, and to manifest to none, neither his work nor place, not time, neither his desire nor will, unless either to a master, or partner, or companion, who also ought to be faithfull, believing, silent, and dignified by nature and education: Seeing that even the prating of a companion, his incredulity and unworthiness hindreth and disturbeth the effect in every operation.

Chapter iii. What dignification is required, that one may be a true Magician and a worker of miracles.

About the beginning of the first book of this work, we have spoken what manner of person a Magician ought to be; but now we will declare a msyticall and secret matter, necessary for every one who desireth to practize [practise] this art, which is both the beginning, perfection and key of all Magicall operations, and it is the dignifying of men to this so sublime vertue and power; for this faculty requireth in man a wonderfull dignification, for that the understanding which is in us the highest faculty of the soul, is the only worker of wonders, which when it is overwhelmed by too much commerce with the flesh, and busied about the sensible soul of the body, is not worthy of the command of Divine substances; therefore many prosecute this art in vain; Therefore it is meet that we who endeavor to attain to so great a height should especially meditate of two things; first how we should leave carnall affections, fraile sense, and materiall passions. Secondly, by what way and means we may ascend to an intellect pure & conjoyned with the powers of the gods, without which we shall never happily ascend to the scrutiny of secret things, and to the power of wonderfull workings, or miracles; for in these dignification consists wholly, which, nature, desert, and a certain religious art do make up; naturall dignity is the best disposition of the body and its Organs, not obscuring the soul with any grossness, and being without al distemper, and this proceedeth from the situation, motion, light, and influence of the Celestiall bodies and spirits which are conversant in the generation of every one, as are those whose ninth house is fortunate by Saturn, Sol, and Mercury; Mars also in the ninth house commandeth the spirits; but concerning these things we have largely treated in the books of the Stars: But who so is not such a one, it is necessary that he recompense the defecr of nature by education, and the best ordering and prosperous use of natural things untill he become commpleat in all intrinsecall and extrinsecall perfections. Hence so great care is taken in the law of Moses concerning the priest, that he be not polluted by a dead carcase or by a woman a widow, or menstruous, that he be free from leprosie, flux of blood, burstness, and be perfect in all his members, not blind, nor lame, nor crook-backed, or with an illfavored nose. And Apuleius saith in his Apology, that the youth to be initiated to divination by magick spels [magic spells], ought to be chosen, sound without sickness, ingenious, comely, perfect in his members, of a quick spirit, eloquent in speech, that in him the divine power might be conversant as in the good houses; That the mind of the youth having quickly attained experience, may be restored to its divinity. But the meritorious dignity is perfected by two things; namely learning and practice. The end of learning is to know the truth; it is meet therefore, as is spoken in the beginning of the first book, that he be learned and skilful in those three faculties; then all impediments being removed, wholly to apply his soul to contemplation & to convert it self into it self; for there is even in our own selves the apprehension and power of all things; but we are prohibited, so as that we little enjoy these things, by passions opposing us even from our birth, and vain imaginations and immoderate affections, which being expelled, the divine knowledge and power presently takes place; but the Religious operation obtains no ness efficacy which ofttimes of it self alone is sufficiently powerfull for us to obtain this deifying vertue, so great is the vertue of holy duties rightly exhibited and performed, that though they be not understood, yet piously and perfectly observed, and with a firm faith believed, they have no less efficacy then to adorn us with a divine power; But what dignity is acquired by the art of Religion, is perfected by certain Religious Ceremonies, expiations, consecrations, and holy rites, proceeding from him whose spirit the publike Religion hath consecrated, who hath power of imposition of hands, and of initiating with Sacramentall poer, by which the Character of the divine vertue and power os stampt on us which they call the divine consent, by which a man supported with the divine nature, and made as it were a companion of the Angels beareth the ingrafted power of God; & this rite is referred to the Ecclesiastical mysteries: If therefore now thou shalt be a man perfect in the sacred understanding of Religion, and piously and most constantly meditatest on it, and without doubting believest, and art such an one on whom the authority of holy rites and nature hath conferred dignity above others, amd one, whom the divine powers contemn not, thou shalt be able by praying, consecrating, sacrificeing, invocating, to attract spiritual and Celestial powers, and to imprint them on those things thou pleasest, and by it to vivifie every magicall work; But whosoever beyond the authority of his office, without the merit of Sanctity and Learning, beyond the dignity of nature and education, shall presume to work any thing in Magick, shall work in vain, and deceive both himself and those that believe on him, and with danger incur the displeasure of the Divine powers.

Chapter iv. Of the two helps of Ceremoniall Magick, Religion and Superstition.

There are two things, which rule every operation of Ceremoniall Magick, namely Religion and Superstition. This Religion is a continuall contemplation of Divine things, and by good works an uniting one self with God and the Divine powers, by which in a reverent family, a service, and a sanctification of worship worthy of them is performed, and also the Ceremonies of Divine worship are rightly exercised; Religion therefore is a certain discipline of externall holy things and Ceremonies by the which as it were by certain signs we are admonished of internall and spirituall things, which is so deeply implanted in us by nature, that we more differ from other creatures by this then Rationality; whosoever therefore neglects Religion (as we have spoken before) and confides only in the strength of naturall things, are very often deceived by the evil spirits; therefore they who are more religiously and holily instructed, neither set a tree nor plant their vinyard, nor undertake any mean work without divine invocation, as the Doctor of the Nations commands the Colossians, saying, whatsoever you shall do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ giving thanks to him, and to God the Father by him. Therefore to superadde the powers of Religion to Physical and Mathematicall vertues is so far from a fault, that not to joyn them, is an hainous sin. Hence in libro senatorum saith Rabbi Hemina, he that enjoyeth any of the creatures without Divine benediction, is supposed both by God and the Church to have used it as taken by theft and robbery, of whom it is written by Salomon [Solomon], he that takes away any things violently from father and mother, is a destroyer; But God is our father, and the Church our mother, as it is written, Is not he thy father who possesseth thee? and elsewhere, Hear my son the discipline of thy father, and despise not the law of thy mother; nothing more displeaseth God, then to be neglected and contemned; nothing pleaseth him more, then to be renowned and adored. Hence he hath permitted no creature of the world to be without Religion. All do worship God, play (as Proclus saith) frame hymnes [hymns] to the leaders of their order; but some things truly after a naturall, others after a sensible, othere a rationall, others an intellectuall manner, and all things in their manner, according to the song of the three children, bless the Lord: But the rites and Ceremonies of Religion, in respect of the diversity of times and places, are diverse. Every Religion hath something of good, because it is directed to God his creator; and although God allows the Christian Religion only, yet other worships which are undertaken for his sake, he doth not altogether reject, and leaveth them not unrewarded, if not with an eternal, yet with a temporal reward, or at least doth punish them less; but he hateth, thundreth against and utterly destroys prophane persons and altogether irreligious as his enemies; for their impoety is greater then he others who follow a false and erroneous Religion: For there is no Religion (saith Lactantius so erroneous, which hath not somewhat of wisdom in it, by which they may obtain pardon, who have kept the chiefest duty of man, if not indeed, yet in intention: But no man can of himself attain to the true Religion, unless he be taught it of God. All worship therefore, which is different from the true Religion, is superstition; In like manner also that which giveth Divine worship, either to whom it ought not, or in that manner which it ought not. Therefore we must especially take heed least at any time, by some perverse worship of superstition, we be envious to the Almighty God, and to the holy powers under him; for this would be not only wicked, but an act most unworthy of Philosophers; superstition therefore altogether it be far different from the true Religion, yet it is not all and wholly rejected, because in many things it is even tolerated, and observed by the chief rulers of Religion; But I call that superstition especially, which is a certain resemblance of Religion, which for as much as it imitates whatsoever is in Religion, as miracles, Sacraments, rites, observations and such like, from whence it gets no small power, and also obtains no less strength by the credulity of the operator; for how much a constant credulity can do, we have spoken in the first book, and is manifestly known to the vulgar. Therefore superstition requireth credulity, as Religion faith, seeing constant credulity can do so great things, as even to work miracles in opinions and false operations; whosoever therefore in his Religion, though false, yet beleeveth most strongly that it is true, and elevates his spirit by reason of this his credulity, untill it be assimilated to those spirits who are the chief leaders of that Religion, may work those things which nature and reason discern not; but incredulity and diffidence doth weaken every work not only in superstition, but also in true Religion, and enervates the desired effect even of the most strong experiments. But how superstition imitateth Religion, these examples declare; namely when worms and locusts are excommunicated, that they hurt not the fruits; when bels and Images are baptised and such like; but because the old Magicians and those who were the authors of this art amongst the ancients, have been Caldeans [Chaldaeans], Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians and Arabians, all whose Religion was perverse and polluted idolatry, we must very much take heed, least we should permit their errors to war against the grounds of the Catholick Religion; for this were blasphemous, and subject to the curse; and I also should be a blasphemer, if I should not admonish you of these thigs, in this science; wheresoever therefore you shall finde these things written by us, know that those things are only related out of other Authors, and not put down by us for truth, but for a probable conjecture which is allyed to truth and an Instruction for imitation in those things which are true; Therefore we ought from their Errors to collect the Truth, which work truly requireth a profound Understanding, perfect Piety, and painfull and laborious Diligence, and also Wisdom which knoweth out of every Evill to extract Good, and to fit oblique things unto the right use of those things which it governeth, as concerning this Augustine gives us an Example of a Carpenter to whom Oblique and Complicate things are no less necessary and convenient then the Straight.

Chapter v. Of the three Guides of Religion, which bring us to the path of Truth.

There are three Guides which bring us even to the paths of truth and which rule all our Religion, in which it wholly consisteth, namely Love, Hope and Fayth [faith]: for Love is the chariot of the Soul, the most excellent of all things, descending from the Intelligences above even to the most inferior things It congregates and converts our mind into the Divine beauty, preserves us also in all our works, gives us Events according to our wishes, administreth power to our supplications: as we read in Homer, Apollo heard Chrysons prayers because he was his very great friend: and some read of Mary Magdalene in the Gospell, many sins were forgiven her, because she loved much; But hope immoveably hanging on those things it desireth, when it is certain and not wavering, nourisheth the mind and perfecteth it; But Faith the superior vertue of all not grounded on humane fictions, but Divine revelations wholly, peirceth [pierceth] all things through the whole world, for seeing it descends from above from the first light, and remains neerest [nearest] to it, is far more noble and excellent than the arts, sciences and beliefes arising from inferior things: this being darted into our intellect by reflexion [reflection] from the first light. To conclude, by faith man is made somewhat the same with the superior powers and enjoyeth the same power with them: Hence Proclus saith. As belief which is a credulity, is below science: so belief which is a true faith, is supersubstantially above all science and understanding conjoyning us immediately to God; for Faith is the root of all miracles, by which alone (as the Platonists testifie) we approach to God, and obtain the Divine power and protection. So we read that Daniel escaped the mouths of the Lyons [lions], because he believed on his God. So to the woman with the bloody issue saith Christ, thy Faith hath made thee whole; and of the blind man desiring sight, he required faith, saying, Do ye believe, that I can open your eyes? so Pallas in Homer comforteth Achilles with these words, I am come to pacifie your wrath, if you will believe. Therefore Linus the Poet sings all things are to be beleeved [believed], because all things are easie [easy] to God; nothing is impossible to him, therefore nothing incredible; therefore we believing those things which belong to Religion, do obtain the vertue of them; but when we shall faile in our Faith, we shall do nothing worthy admiration, but of punishment; As we have an example of this in Luke, in these words, Therefore certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists, took upon them to call, over them which had evil spirits in the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, we adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preacheth; and the evil spirit answered and said, Jesus I know, and Paul I know, but who art thou? and the man in whom the evil spirit was, lept [leaped] on them, and over came [overcame] them, so that they fled out of the house naked and wounded.

Chapter vi. How by these guides the soul of man ascendeth up into the Divine nature, and is made a worker of Miracles.

Therefore Our mind being pure and divine, inflamed with a religious love, adorned with hope, directed by faith, placed in the hight [height] and top of the humane soul, doth attract the truth, and sudainly comprehend it, & beholdeth all the stations, grounds, causes and sciences of things both natural and immortal in the divine truth it self as it were in a certain glass of Eternity. Hence it comes to pass that we, though Natural, know those things which are above nature, and understand all things below, and as it were by divine Oracles receive the knowledg [knowledge] not only of those things which are, but also of those that are past and to come, presently, and many years hence; Moreover not only in Sciences, Arts and Oracles the Understanding challengeth to it self this divine vertue, but also receiveth this miraculous power in certain things by command to be changed. Hence it comes to pass that though we are framed a natural body, yet we sometimes prædominate [predominate] over nature, and cause such wonderfull, sodain and difficult operations, as that evil spirits obey us, the stars are disordered, the heavenly powers compelled, the Elements made obedient; so devout men and those elevated by these Theologicall vertues, command the Elements, drive away Fogs, raise the winds, cause rain, cure diseases, raise the dead, all which things to have been done amongst diverse Nations, Poets and Historians do sing and relate: and that these things may be done, all the famousest Philosophers, and Theologians do confirme; so the prophets, Apostles, and the rest, were famous by the wonderfull power of God; therefore we must know, that as by the influx of the first agent, is produced oftentimes something without the cooperation of the middle causes, so also by the work of Religion alone, may something be done without the application of naturall and Celestiall vertues; but no man can work by pure Religion alone, unless he be made totally intellectuall: But whosoever, without the mixture of other powers, worketh by Religion alone, if he shall persevere long in the work, is swallowed up by the Divine power and cannot live long: But whosoever shall attempt this and not be purified, doth bring upon himself judgement, and is delivered to the evil spirit, to be devoured.

Chapter vii. That the knowledge of the true God is necessary for a Magician, and what the old Magicians and Philosophers have thought concerning God.

Seeing that the being and operation of all things, depend on the most high God, Creator of all things, from thence also on the other dlvine powers, to whom also is granted a power of fashioning and creating, not principally indeed, but instrumentally by vertue of the first Creator (for the beginning of every thing is the first cause, but what is produced by the second causes, is much more produced by the first, which is the producer of the second causes: which therefore we call secondary gods) It is necessary therefore that every Magitian [magician] know that very God, which is the first cause, and Creator of all things; And also the other gods, or divine powers (which we call the second causes) and not to be ignorant, with what adoration, reverence, holy rites conformable to the condition of every one, they are to be worshipped: Whosoever therefore invocates the gods, and doth not confer on them their due honour, nor, rightly distribute to them what belongs to them, shall neither enjoy their presence, nor any successfull effect from them. As in Harmony, if one string be broken, the whole musick jars, and sometimes incurs the hazard of punishment, as it is written of the Assyrians, whom Salmanasar planted in Samaria, because they knew not the customes of the God of the Land, the Lord did send Lyons amongst them, who slew them, because they were ignorant of the rights of the god of the Land. Now therefore let us see, what the old Magicians and Philosophers thought concerning God; for we read that Nicocreonte, a tyrant of Cyprus, long since asking, who was the greatest God, the Serapian Oracle answered him, That he was to be accounted the greatest God, whose head was the Heavens, the Seas his Belly, the Earth his feet, his ears placed in the sky, his eyes the light of the glorious Sun; not much unlike to this, Orpheus sang in these verses,

The Heaven's Joves Royall Palace, he's King,
Fountain vertue and God of every thing;
He is Omnipotent, and in his breast
Earth, water, fire and aire do take their rest.
Both night and day, true wisdom with sweet Love,
Are all contain'd in this vast bulk of Jove.
His neck and glorious head if you would see,
Behold the Heavens high, and majesty;
The glorious rayes of Stars do represent
His golden locks, and's heads adornament.

And elsewhere,

Bright Phebus [Phoebus] and the Moon, are the two eyes
Of this great
Jove by which all things he spies;
His head which predicts All, is plac'd i'th skie [sky],
From which no noise can whisper secretly.
It pierceth all; his body vast extends,
Both far and wide, and knows no bounds nor ends.
The spacious Air's his breast, his wings the wind,
By which he flies far swifter then the mind.
His belly is our mother earth, who swels [swells]
Into huge mountains, whom the Ocean fils [fills]
And circles; hls feet are the rocks and stones
Which of this Globe are the foundations.
Jove, under the earth conceals all things,
And from the depth into the light them brings.

Therefore they thought the whole world to be Jupiter, and truly he hath produced the soul of this world, which containeth the world in it self. Hence Sophocles saith, in truth there is but one onely God, who hath made this heaven and this spacious earth; and Euripides saith, Behold the most high, who every where embraceth in his Arms, the immensurable heaven and earth; believe that he is Jupiter, account him God; and Ennius the Poet sings,

Behold this bright sublime shining, whom all
Call Jove
---------- ----- -------

Therefore the whole world is Jupiter, as Porphyry saith, a creature made of all creatures, and a God constituted of all gods; but Jupiter is, so far as we can understand, from whence all things are produced, creating all things by his wisdom. Hence Orpheus sings concerning the Holy Word;

There is one God, who all things hath created,
Preserves, and over all is elevated.
He only by our mind is comprehended,
And to poor mortals He ne'r ill intended.
Besides whom, there no other is

And a little after,

He himself is the beginning, middle and end, as the ancient Prophets have taught us, to whom God long since delivered these things in two tables; and he calleth him in the same verse the only great Creator, and immortall. Zoroastes [Zoroaster] likewise in his sacred History of the Persians defineth God thus, God is the first of all those things which suffer neither decay nor corruption, unbegot, never dying, without parts, and most like himself, The author and promoter of all good things, the father of all, most bountifull and wise, the sacred light of justice, the absolute perfection of nature, the contriver, and wisedom [wisdom] thereof. Apuleius also describs [describes] him to be a King, the cause, foundation and original, beginning of all nature, the supreme begetter of spirits, eternal, the preserver of living creatures, a Father with propagation, not to be comprehended by time, place or any other circumstance, and therefore imaginable to a few, utterable to none; from hence therefore Euripides commanded the highest God to be cal'd Jupiter, through whose head Orpheus sang all things came into this light, but the other powers he supposeth to be subservient, viz. which are without God, and separated from him, and are by the Philosophers called the Ministers or Angels of God, and separated intelligences; therefore they say Religious worship to be due to this most high Jupiter and to him only, but to the other Divine powers not to be due unless for his sake.

Chapter viii. What the Ancient Philosophers have thought concerning the Divine Trinity.

Austine [Augustine] and Porphyry testifie, that the Platonists held three persons in God, the first of which, they call the father of the world; the second they call the Son and the first mind, and so he is named by Macrobius. The third, the spirit or soul of the world, which Virgil also from Plato's opinion calleth a spirit, when he sings,

Within the Spirit nourisheth, the mind'
Diffus'd through th' whole doth in its kind
The lump both act, and agitate ---

Plotinus and Philo deliver, that the Son of God, viz. the first mind or Divine intellect floweth from God the Father, even as a word from the speaker or as light from light; from hence it is that he is called both the word and speech, and splendour of God the Father; for the Divine mind by it self, with one only and uninterrupted act understandeth the chiefest good without any vicissitude, or mediate knowledge; he generateth in himself an Issue and Son, who is the full Intelligence, compleat image of himself, and the perfect pattern of the world, whom our John and Mercurius name the word or speech; Plato the Son of God the Father; Orpheus, Pallas born from Jupiters brain, that is, wisdom: This is the most absolute image of God the Father, yet by a certain relation, or some intrinsecall absolute thing, as it were begot and distinguished from the Father, who saith in Ecclesiasticus, I have proceeded from the mouth of the most high, I am the first begot before all creatures: Iamblichus testifieth this Son to be One and the same God with the Father in Essence, namely calling God, both the Father and Son of himself. Also Mercurius Trismegistus in Asclepius mentioneth the Son of God in diverse places; for he saith my God and Father begat a Mind a work diverss from himself; And elsewhere, unity begets unity, and reflecteth his flagrant love on himself; and in Pimander (where he seemeth to prophesie of the Covenant of grace to come, and of the mystery of regeneration) saith, the author of Regeneration is the Son of God, the man by the will of the one only God, and also that God is most replenished with the fruitfulness of both sexes. In like manner the Indian philosophers affirm, the World to be an Animal, partly Masculine, and partly Feminine; and Orpheus also calleth Nature or the Jove of this world, both the male and female thereof, and that the gods partake of both Sexes. Hence it is, that in his Hymnes he thus salutes Minerva, You are indeed both man and woman; and Apuleius in his book of the world, out of the Divinity of Orpheus produceth this verse of Jupiter,

Jove is both male and female, immortall.

And Virgil speaking of Venus saith,

I descend, and the God guiding -----

And elsewhere, understanding Juno or Alecto, he saith

Neither was God absent from her praying.

And Tibullus sings,

I who prophaned have the Deities
Venus great -----

And it is reported that the people of Cacenia wonderfully adored the God Moon. From this compleat intelligence of supream fecundity his love is produced, binding the intelligence with the mind. And by so much the more, by how much it is infinitely more intimate to it self, than other off springs to their parents. This is the third person, viz. the holy spirit. Iamblichus also brings the oracles of the Chaldeans placing a fatherly power in God, and an Emanation of the intellect from the Father, and a fiery love proceeding from Father and Son, and the same to be God. Hence we read in Plutarch, that the Gentiles described God to be an intellectuall and fiery spirit, having no form, but transformilig himself into whatsoever he pleaseth, equalizing himself to all things; and we read in Deuteronomy, Our God is a consuming fire; of whom also Zoroastes [Zoroaster] saith, all things were begot of fire alone; so also Heraclitus the Ephesian teacheth; Hence Divine Plato hath placed Gods habitation in fire, namely understanding, the unspeakable splendour of God in himself, and love about himself; and we read in Homer, The Heavens to be the Kingdom of Jupiter, when he sings,

Jove darkning clouds and reigning in the skie,

And the same elsewhere.

The lot of Jove the Heaven is i'th' aire,
He sits

But Aether is derived according to the Greek Grammer, from Aetho, which signifies to Burn, and Aer spiritus quasi Aethaer, that is, a burning spirit; And therefore Orpheus calleth the Heaven Pyripnon, that is a fiery breathing place; therefore the Father, Son, and the aimable spirit, which is also fiery, are by the Divines called three Persons; Whom Orpheus also in his adjurations invocateth with these words, Heaven I admire thee, thou wise work of the great God; I adjure thee, O thou word of the Father, which he first spake when he established the whole world by his wisdom. Hesiode [Hesiod] also confesseth the same things under the names of Jupiter Minerva and Bule in his Theogony, declaring the twofold birth of Jupiter in these words: The first daughter called Tritonia with gray eyes, having equal power with the Father, and prudent Bule, that is counsel, which Orpheus in the forenamed verses pronounceth plurally, because of his twofold Emanation, for he proceedeth both from Jupiter and Minerva. And Austin [Augustine] himself in his fourth Book De Civit Dei doth testify that Porphyry the Platonist placed three Persons in God; the first he cals the father of the universe, the second, the first mind, and Macrobius the Son, the third the soul of the world, which Virgil according to Plato's opinion, calleth a spirit, saying, the spirit within maintains. Therefore it is God, as Paul saith, from whom, in whom, by whom are all things: for from the father as from a fountain flow all things, but in the Son as in a pool all things are placed in their Ideas, and by the Holy Ghost are all things manifested, and every thing distributed to his proper degrees.

Chapter ix. What the true and most Orthodox faith is concerning God and the most holy Trinity.

The Catholik [Catholic] Doctors and faithfull people of God, have decreed, that we ought thus to believe and profess that there is one only true God, increate, infinite, omnipotent, eternal Father, Son and Holy Ghost, three persons, coeternall and coequall, of one most simple Essence, substance and nature. This is the Catholike faith, this is the Orthodox Religion, this is the Christian truth, that we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity, neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the substance. The Father begat the Son from all eternity and gave him his substance, and nevertheless retained it himself. The Son also by being begot, received the substance of the Father, but assumed not the proper Person of the Father; for the Father translated it not into the Son; for they are both of one and the same substance, but of diverse persons. This Son also although he be coeternall with the Father, and begot of the substance of the Father before the world, yet notwithstanding was born into the world out of the substance of a Virgin, and his name was called Jesus, perfect God, perfect man, of a reasonable soul and humane flesh, who in all things was man, sin excepted. Therefore it is necessary, that we beleeve [believe], that our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, is God and man, one person, two natures; God begot before the world without a mother, man born into the world; without a father, from a pure Virgin, both before and after his birth; he suffered on the Cross, and dyed [died], but on the Cross restored life, and destroyed death by his death; he was buried and descended into hell, but brought forth the souls of the Fathers from hell, and rose again by his own power; the third day he ascended into the Heavens, & sent his spirit the Comforter, & shall come to Judge the quick [=living] and the dead; and at his coming all men shall rise again in their flesh, and shall give an account of their works; this is the true faith, concerning which if any man doubt, and not firmly believe, he is far from the hope of eternall life and salvation.

Chapter x. Of Divine emanations, which the Hebrews call Numerations, others attributes; The gentiles gods and Deities; and of the ten Sephiroths and ten most sacred names of God which rule them, and the interpretation of them.

God himself, though he be Trinity in persons, yet is but one only simple Essence; notwithstanding we doubt not but that there are in him many Divine powers, which as beams flow from him, which the Philosophers of the Gentiles cal gods, the Hebrew masters numerations, we name Attributes; as wisdom which Orpheus call Pallas; understanding, which he Mercury; The conception of the Form, which he Saturn; The Productive power, which he Neptune; the secret nature of things, which he Iuno [Juno]; Love, which he Venus; pure life, which he the Sun, or Apollo. The matter of the whole world, he calleth Pan; the soul, as it ingendereth things below, contemplateth things above, and retracteth it self into it self, he honoured with three names, viz. Maris, Neptune and Ocean, and more of this kind, of which he sings elsewhere,

Pluto and Jupiter, and Phebus, are one;
But why do we speak twice? Gods one alone.

And of the same Valerius Soranus sang,

Omnipotent Jove the God and King of Kings,
The Father of the gods, One, yet all things.

Therefore the most prudent Theologians of the Gentiles did worship the One God, under diverse names and powers, yea diverse sexes; whom, as Pliny saith, Fraile and weak mortality hath digested unto more, being mindfull of his one frailty, that every man might worship that portion which he especially wanteth; so those who had need of faith invocated Jupiter; they that wanted providence, Apollo; wisdom, Minerva; and so as they wanted other things, they invocated other powers. Hence arose that great variety of Dieties [deities], by reason of the many and diverse distribution of graces; but God is one, from whom all things. Therefore Apuleius in his book De mundo to Faustin saith, Whereas there is but one God and one power, yet he is named by diverse names, for the multitude of species, by whose variety he is made of many shapes; and Marcus Varro in his book of the worship of God, saith, As all souls are reduced to the one soul of the world or universe, so are all the gods referred to Jupiter, who is the same God, worshipped under diverse names. Therefore it is meet to know the sensible proprieties, and perfectly to intellectualize them by the way of more secret Analogy; whosoever understandeth truly the Hymnes of Orpheus and the old Magicians, shall find that they differ not from the Cabalisticall secrets and Orthodox traditions; for whom Orpheus cals Curets and unpolluted gods, Dionysius names Powers; the Cabalists appropriate them to the numeration Pahad, that is to the Divine fear: so that which is EnSoph in the Cabala, Orpheus calleth Might; and Typhon is the same with Orpheus, as Zamael in the Cabala; but the Mecubales of the Hebrews, the most learned in Divine things, have received the ten principal names of God, as certain Divine powers, or as it were members of God, which by ten numerations which they call Sephiroth as it were vestiments, Instruments or examplars of the Archetype, have an influence on all things created, through the high things, even to the lowest, yet by a certain order; for first and immediately they have influence on the nine orders of Angels, and quire of blessed souls, and by them into the Celestiall Spheres, Planets and men, by the which Sephiroth every thing then receiveth power and vertue; The first of these is the name Eheia, the name of the Divine Essence; his numeration is called Cether [Kether], which is interpreted a Crown or Diadem, and signifieth the most simple Essence of the Divinity, and it is called that which the eye seeth not, and is attributed to God the Father, and hath his influence by the order of Seraphinus, or as the Hebrews call them Haioth Hacadosch, that is creatures of holiness, and then by the primum mobile, bestows the gift of being to all things, filling the whole Universe both through the circumference and center, whose particular intelligence is called Meratiron [Metatron], that is, the prince of faces, whose duty it is to bring others to the face of the prince; and by him the Lord spake to Moses. The second name is Iod or Tetragrammaton joyned with Iod; his numeration is Hochma, that is wisdom, and signifieth the Divinity full of Ideas, and the first begotten; and is attributed to the Son, and hath his influence by the order of Cherubins, or that the Hebrews call Orphanim, that is, forms or wheels; and from thence into the starry Heaven, where he fabricateth so many figures as he hath Ideas in himself, and distinguisheth the very Chaos of the creatures, by a particular Intelligence called Raziell, who was the ruler of Adam. The third name is called Tetragrammaton Elohim; his numeration is named Prina, [Binah] viz. providence and understanding, and signifies remission, quietness, the Jubilee, penitentiall conversion, a great Trumpet, redemption of the world, and the life of the world to come; it is attributed to the Holy Spirit, and hath his influence by the order of the thrones, or which the Hebrews call Aralim, that is great Angels mighty and strong, and from thence by the sphere of Saturn administereth form to the unsettled matter, whose particular intelligence is Zaphchiel, the ruler of Noah, and another intelligence named Iophiel the ruler of Sem; and these are three supream and highest numerations as it were seats of the Divine persons, by whose commands all things are made, but are executed by the other seven, which are therefore called the numerations framing. Therefore the fourth name is El whose numeration is Hesed, which is Clemence or goodness, and signifieth grace, mercy, piety, magnificence, the scepter and right hand, and hath his influx by the order of the Dominations, which the Hebrews call Hasmalim, and so through the sphere of Iupiter [Jupiter] fashioning the Images of bodyes [bodies], bestowing clemency and pacifying justice on all; his particular intelligence is Zadkiell the ruler of Abraham: The fifth name is Elohim Gibor, that is, the mighty God, punishing the sins of the wicked; and his numeration is called Geburach [Geburah], which is to say, power, gravity, fortitude, security, judgement, punishing by slaughter and war: and it is applyed [applied] to the Tribunall of God, The girdle, the sword and left hand of God; it is also called Pachad, which is fear, and hath his influence throw [through] the order of powers which the Hebrews call Seraphim, and from thence through the sphere of Mars, to whom belongs fortitude, war, affliction, it draweth forth the Elements; and his particular intelligence is Camael, the ruler of Samson; The sixt [sixth] name is Eloha, or a name of four letters, joyned [joined] with Vaudahat, his numeration is Tiphereth, that is apparel, beauty, glory, pleasure, and signifieth the tree of life, and hath his influence through the order of vertues [virtues], which the Hebrews call Malachim, that is Angels into the spere [sphere] of the Sun, giving brightness and life to it, and from thence producing mettals [metals]; his particular intelligence is Raphael, who was the Ruler of Isaac and Toby the younger, and the Angel Peliel, ruler of Iacob [Jacob]. The seventh name is Tetragrammaton Sabaoth, or Adonai Sabaoth, that is the God of hosts; and his numeration is Nezah [Netzach], that is triumph and victory; the right Columne is applyed to it, and it signifies the eternity and justice of a revenging God; it hath his influence through the order of principalities, whom the Hebrews call Elohim, that is Gods, into the sphere of Venus, gives zeal and love of righteousness, and produceth vegetables; his Intelligence is Haniel and the Angel Cerviel, the ruler of David; The eighth is called also Elohim Sabaoth, which is also interpreted the God of Hoasts [Hosts], not of war and justice, but of piety and agreement; for this name signifieth both, and precedeth his Army; the numeration of this is called Hod, which is interpreted both praise, confession, honor and famousness. The left column is attributed to it; it hath his influence through the order of the Archangels, which the Hebrews call Ben Elohim, that is the sons of God, into the sphere of Mercury, and gives elegancy and consonancy of speech and produceth living creatures; his intelligence is Michael, who was the ruler of Salomon [Solomon]; The ninth name is called Sadai, that is Omnipotent, satisfying all, and Elhai, which is the living God; his numeration is Iesod, that is foundation, and signifieth a good understanding, a Covenant, redemption and rest, and hath his influence through the order of Angels, whom the Hebrews name Cherubim, into the sphere of the Moon, causing the increase and decrease of all things, and taketh care of the genui, and keepers of men, and distributeth them; his intelligence is Gabriel, who was the keeper of Joseph, Joshua and Daniel; The tenth name is Adonai Melech, that is Lord and King; his numeration is Malchuth [Malkuth], that is Kingdom and Empire, & signifieth a Church, Temple of God, and a Gate, and hath his influence through the order of Animastick, viz. of blessed souls, which by the Hebrews is called Issim, that is Nobles, Lords and Princes; they are inferior to the Hierarchies, and have their influence on the sons of men, and give knowledge and the wonderfull understanding of things, also industry and prophesie [prophesy]; and the soul of Messiah is president amongst them, or (as others say) the intelligence Metattron [Metatron] which is called the first Creature, or the soul of the world, and was the ruler of Moses.

Chapter xi. Of the Divine names, and their power and vertue [virtue].

God himself though he be only one in Essence, yet hath diverse names, which expound not his diverse Essences or Deities, but certain properties flowing from him, by which names he doth pour down, as it were by certain Conduits on us and all his creatures many benefits and diverse gifts; ten of these Names we have above described, which also Hierom reckoneth up to Marcella. Dionysius reckoneth up forty five names of God and Christ. The Mecubales of the Hebrews from a certain text of Exodus, derive seventy-two names, both of the Angels and of God, which they call the name of seventy two letters, and Schemhamphores, that is, the expository; but others proceeding further, out of all places of the Scripture do infer so many names of God as the number of those names is: but what they signifie is altogether unknown to us: From these therefore, besides those which we have reckoned up before, is the name of the Divine Essence, Eheia אהיה, which Plato translates ων, from hence they call God TO ON , others O UN that is the being. Hu הוא, is another name revealed to Esay, signifying the Abysse of the Godhead, which the Greeks translate TAUTON, the Latins, himself the same. Esch אֶש, is another name received from Moses which soundeth Fire, and the name of God Na נאָ is to be invocated in perturbations and troubles. There is also the name Iah יָה and the name Elion עליון and the name Macom מוקם, the name Caphu כפו, the name Innon יונן & the name Emeth [=aemeth] אֶמֶת which is interpreted Truth, and is the seal of God; and there are two other names Zur צוּר and Aben אבן both of them signifie a solid work, and one of them express the Father with the Son; and many more names have we placed above in the scale of numbers; and many names of God and the Angels are extracted out of the holy Scriptures by the Cabalisticall calculation, Notarian and Gimetrian [Gematria] arts, where many words retracted by certain of their letters make up one name, or one name dispersed by each of its letters signifieth or rendreth more. Somtimes they are gathered from the heads of words, as the name Agla1 אגלא from this verse of the Holy Scripture

א֒תה ג֒יבר ל֒עולם א֒דני

1. AGLA (acronym/name of God) based on "Attah Gibbor Le'olam Adonai," -- "the first four words of the second benediction of Shemoneh 'Esreh" See Jewish Encyclopedia. The Hebrew is actually defective in V. Perrone Compagni 1992 p. 428 (words out of order and reads LIBR instead og GIBR).

that is the mighty God for ever; in like manner the name Iaia יאיא from this verse

י֒הוה א֒להינו י֒הוה א֒חר 2

that is God our God is one God; in like manner the name Iava יאוא from this verse

י֒הי א֒ור וי֒הי א֒ור

2. V. Perrone Compagni 1992 p. 428 again has the Hebrew words out of order.

that is let there be light, & there was light; in like maner the name Ararita אראריתא from this verse

א֒חר ר֒אש א֒חדותו ר֒אש י֒יהודו ת֒מורתו א֒חד

that is one principle of his unity, one beginning of his Individuality his vicissitude is one thing;

From Rabbi Hamai's Book of Speculation; see below. Ehad R'osh Ahduto R'eshit Yihudo Temurato Ehad. -JHP

and this name Hacaba הקבה is extracted from this verse

ה֒ק֒דוש ב֒רוך ה֒וא

V. Perrone Compagni 1992 p. 429 again has the Hebrew words out of order.

the holy and the blessed one; in like manner this name Jesu ישו is found in the heads of these two verses, viz.

יביא שלוהו לו

that is, untill the Messiah shall come, and the other verse

י֒נון ש֒מו ו֒ית

that is, "his name abides till the end." Thus also is the name Amen אמן extracted from this verse

א֒דני מ֒לך נ֒אמן

that is, "the Lord the faithfull King"; sometimes these names are extracted from the end of words, as the same name Amen, from this verse

לא֒ כן֒ הרשעים֒,

that is, "the wicked not so," but the letters are transposed; so by the finall letters of this verse

לי֒ מה֒ שמו֒ מה֒,

that is, "to me what?" or "what is his name?" is found the name Tetragrammaton, in all these a letter is put for a word, and a letter extracted from a word, either from the beginning, end, or where you please; and sometimes these names are extracted from all the letters, one by one, even as those seventy two names of God are extracted from those three verses of Exodus beginning from these three words,1

יוסע ויבא ויט

1. Agrippa's Hebrew at some point got garbled. It should read:

ויסע ויבא ויט.

Agrippa's source, Reuchlin De arte (p. 278) has it correct. V. Perrone Compagni 1992 p. 429 silently corrects.

the first and last verses being written from the right to the left, but the middle contrarywise from the left to the right, as we shall shew hereafter; and so sometimes a word is extracted from a word, or a name from a name, by the transposition of letters, as Messia משיח from Ismah ישמח and Michael מיכאל from מלאכי Malachi. But sometimes by changing of the Alphabeth, which the Cabalists call Ziruph צירוף so from the name Tetragrammaton יהוה are drawn forth [+the names] מֹצֹפֹצֹ Maz Paz כֹוֹזֹוֹ Kuzu sometimes also by reason of the equality of numbers, names are changed, as Metattron [Metatron] מטטרון for Sadai שדי for both of them make three hundred and fourteen, so Iiai ייאי and El אל are equall in number, for both make thirty one. And these are the hidden secrets concerning which it is most difficult to judge, and to deliver a perfect science; neither can they be understood and taught in any other language except the Hebrew; but seeing the names of God (as Plato saith in Cratylus) are highly esteemed of the Barbarians, who had them from God, without the which we can by no means perceive the true words and names by which God is called, therefore concerning these we can say no more, but those things which God out of his goodness hath revealed to us; for they are the mysteries and conveyances of Gods omnipotency, not from men, nor yet from Angels, but instituted and firmly established by the most high God, after a certain manner, with an immovable number and figure of Characters, and breath [breathe] forth the harmony of the Godhead, being consecrated by the Divine assistance; therefore the creatures above fear them, those below tremble at them, the Angels reverence, the devils are affrighted, every creature doth honor, and every Religion adore them; the religious observation whereof, and devout invocation with fear and trembling doth yeeld us great vertue, and even deifies the union, and gives a power to work wonderfull things above nature: Therefore wee may not for any reason whatsoever, change them; therefore Origen commandeth that they be kept without corruption in their own Characters; and Zoroastes [Zoroaster] also forbiddeth the changing of barbarous and old words; for as Plato saith in Cratylus, All Divine words or names, have proceeded either from the gods first, or from antiquity, whose beginning is hardly known, or from the Barbarians: Iamblicus in like manner adviseth, that they may not be translated out of their own language into another; for, saith he, they keep not the same force being translated into another tongue: Therefore these names of God are the most fit and powerfull means of reconciling and uniting man with God, as we read in Exodus, in every place in which mention is made of my name, I will be with thee, and bless thee; and in the book of Numbers, the Lord saith, I will put my name upon the sons of Israel and I will bless them: Therefore Divine Plato in Cratylus & in Philebus commandeth to reverence the names of God more than the Images or statues of the gods: for there is a more express Image and power of God, reserved in the faculty of the mind, especially if it be inspired from above, than in the works of mens hands; Therefore sacred words have not their power in Magicall operations, from themselves, as they are words, but from the occult Divine powers working by them in the minds of those who by faith adhere to them; by which words the secret power of God as if were through Conduite pipes, is transmitted into them, who have ears purged by faith, and by most pure conversation and invocation of the divine names are made the habitation of God, and capable of these divine influences; whosoever therefore useth rightly these words or names of God with that purity of mind, in that manner and order, as they were delivered, shall both obtain and do many wonderfull things, as we read of Medea.

Most pleasant sleep she causd, words thrice she spake,
The Seas appeasd, and soon their fury brake.

Which the Ancient Doctors of the Hebrews have especially observed, who were wont to do many wonderfull things by words; the Pythagorians [Pythagoreans] also have shewed, how to cure very wonderfully the diseases both of body and mind, with certain words; we read also, that Orpheus, being one of the Argonauts diverted a most fierce storm by certain words; in like manner that Apollonius, by certain words whispered, raised up a dead maide at Rome; and Philostratus reporteth that some did by certain words call up Achilles Ghost; and Pausanias relates, that in Lydia in the Cities of Hiero-Cesarea and Hypepis, were two temples consecrated to the Goddess whom they called Persica, in both of which when divine service was ended, a certain Magitian [magician], after he had laid dry wood upon the Altar, and in his native language had sang Hymnes, and pronounced certain barbarous words, out of a book which he held in his hand, presently the dry wood, no fire being put to it, was seen to be kindled, and burn most clearly. Also Serenus Samonicus delivereth amongst the precepts of Physick, that if this name Abracadabra be written, as is here expressed, viz. diminishing letter after letter backward, from the last to the first, it will cure the Hemitritean Fever or any other, if the sheet of paper or parchment be hanged about the neck, and the disease will by little and little decline and pass away.

                          a b r a c a d a b r a
                          a b r a c a d a b r
                          a b r a c a d a b
                          a b r a c a d a
                          a b r a c a d
                          a b r a c a
                          a b r a c
                          a b r a
                          a b r
                          a b

But Rabbi Hama1 in his book of speculation delivereth a sacred seal more efficacious against any diseases of man, or any griefes whatsoever, in whose foreside are the four squared names of God, so subordinated to one another in a square, that from the highest to the lowest those most holy names or seales of the Godhead do arise, whose intention is inscribed in the circumferentiall circle, but on the backside is inscribed the seven lettered name Araritha, and his interpretation is written about, viz. the verse from which it is extracted, even as you see it here described.

1. From Rabbi Hamai's Book of Speculation (Sefer Ha-'Iyyun) (13th ce). For translation, see The Early Kabbalah (Classics of Western Spirituality) Agrippa seems to have based his information on Reuchlin, On the Art of the Kabbalah: (De Arte Cabalistica) . See ed. Goodman, p. 351. The verse around the perimeter is from Deut 6:4: יהוה אלהינו יהוה אחד ("The LORD our God, the LORD is one.")

This pentacle is also found in many manuscripts of the Key of Solomon. -JHP

The former part.
Pars Anterior

The hinder part.
Pars Posterior.

But all must be done in most pure gold, or Virgin Parchment, pure, clean and unspotted, also with Inke made for this purpose, of the smoak [smoke] of consecrated wax lights, or incense, and holy water; The actor must be purified and cleansed by sacrifice, and have an infallible hope, a constant faith, and his mind lifted up to the most high God, if he would surely obtain this Divine power. In like manner against the affrightments and mischief of evil spirits and men, and what dangers soever, either of journey, waters, enemies, arms, in the manner as is above said, these Characters on the one side בוווו and these on the backside צמרבה which are the beginnings and ends of the five first verses of Genesis, and representation of the creation of the world; and by this Ligature they say that a man shall be free from all mischiefes, if so be that he firmly beleeveth [believeth] in God the creator of all things.

In the fore part.

In the hinder part.

In parte anteriore. a tergo

Neither let any distrust or wonder, that sacred words, applyed outwardly can do very much, seeing by them the Almighty God made the heavens and the earth; and further, by experience it is found, as saith Rab Costa Ben Luca, that many things not having Physicall vertues do very much, As for example, the finger1 of an abortive child hanged on the neck of a woman hindereth conception, so long as it remaineth there; Moreover that in diverse sacred words and names of God, there is great and Divine power, which worketh miracles, Zoroastes [Zoroaster], Orpheus, Iamblicus, Synesius. Alchindus, and all the famous Philosophers testifie; and Artephius both a Magician and Philosopher, hath written a peculiar book concerning the vertue of words and Characters. Origen not inferior to the famousest Philosophers, doth maintain against Celsus, that there doth ly [lie] hid wonderfull vertue in certain Divine names, and in the book of Judges the Lord saith, "my name which is Pele אֶלֶא", signifieth with us, a worker of miracles. or causing wonders; but the true name of God is known neither to men nor to Angels, but to God alone, neither shall it be manifested (as the holy Scriptures testifie) before the Will of God be fulfilled; Notwithstanding God hath other names amongst the Angels, others amongst us men; for there is no name of God amongst us (as Moses the Egyptian saith) which is not taken from his works, and signifieth with participation, besides the name Tetragrammaton, which is holy, signifying the substance of the Creator in a pure signification, in which no other thing is partaker with God the Creator; therefore it is called the separated name, which is written and not read, neither is it expressed by us, but named, and signifieth the second supernall Idiome, which is of God, and perhaps of Angels. In like manner the Angels have their name amongst themselves, and in their Idiome, which Paul calleth the tongue of Angels, concerning which we have very little knowledge with us, but all their other names are taken from their offices and operations, which have not so great efficacy, and therefore the Magicians call them by their true names, namely the heavenly ones, which are contained in the holy Bible.

1. "Rabbi Costa Ben Luca": See Reuchlin, op. cit., p. 349. Note that Agrippa misquotes Reuchlin's auricularis digitus ("ear-lobe") as digitus ("finger"). -JHP

Chapter xii. Of the influence of the divine names through all the middle causes into these inferior things.

The most high Creator and first cause, although he ruleth and disposeth all things, yet distributeth the care of execution to diverse Ministers, both good and bad, which John in the Revelations cals assisting, and destroying Angels: of which the prophet sings elsewhere; The Angel of the Lord remains in the presence of them that fear him, that he may preserve them: and elsewhere he describes immissions by evill Angels. Now whatsoever God doth by Angels, as by ministers, the same doth he by heavens, Stars, but as it were by instruments, that after this manner all things might work together to serve him, that as every part of Heaven, and every Star doth discern every corner or place of the earth, and time, species and Individuall: so it is fit that the Angelical vertue of that part and Star should be applyed to them, viz. place, time, and species. Whence Austin [Augustine] in his book of questions, saith, Every visible thing in this world, hath an Angelicall power appointed for it: Hence Origen on the book of Numbers saith, the world hath need of Angels, that may rule the Armies of the earth, Kingdoms, provinces, men, beasts, the nativity, and progress of living creatures, shrubs, plants, and other things, giving them that vertue which is said to be in them, from an occult propriety; much more need is there of Angels that may rule holy works, vertues and men, as they who alwaies see the face of the most high father, and can guide men in the right path, and also even the least thing to this place, as fit members of this world in which God as the chief president, dwelleth, most sweetly disposing all things, not being contained, or circumscribed, but containing all things, as John in the Revelations describeth the heavenly City, whose twelve gates are guarded with twelve Angels, infusing on them what they receive from the Divine name, twelve times revolved; and in the foundations of that City the names of the twelve Apostles, and the Lamb; for as in the Law, in the stones of the Ephod and foundations of the Holy City described by Ezekiel, were written the names of the tribes of Israel, and the name of four letters did predominate over them; so in the Gospel, the names of the Apostles are written in the stones of the foundation of the heavenly City, which stones stand for the tribes of Israel in the Church, over which the name of the Lamb hath influence, that is, the name of Jesus, in which is all the vertue of the four lettered name; seeing that Jehovah the Father hath given him all things: Therefore the Heavens receive from the Angels, that which they dart down; but the Angels from the great name of God and Jesu, the vertue whereof is first in God, afterward diffused into these twelve and seven Angels, by whom it is extended into the twelve signs, and into the seven planets, and consequently into all the other Ministers and instruments of God, pourtraiting even infinitely. Hence Christ saith, Whatsoever you shall ask the Father in my name, he will give you; nd after his resurrection saith, In my name they shall cast out devils, and do as followeth; so that the name of four letters is no further necessary, the whole vertue thereof being translated into the name of Jesus, in which only miracles are done; neither is there any other (as Peter saith) under heaven given unto men, by which they can be saved, but that; but let us not think, that by naming Jesus prophanely [profanely], as the name of a certain man, we can do miracles by vertue of it: but we must invocate it in the holy Spirit, with a pure mind and a fervent spirit, that we may obtain those things which are promised us in him; especially knowledge going before, without which there is no hearing of us, according to that of the Prophet, I will hear him because he hath known my name; Hence at this time no favour can be drawn from the heavens, unless the authority, favor and consent of the name Jesu intervene; Hence the Hebrews and Cabalists most skilfull [skillful] in the Divine names, can work nothing after Christ by those old names, as their fathers have done long since; and now it is by experience confirmed, that no devil nor power of Hell, which vex and trouble men, can resist this name, but will they, nill they, bow the knee and obey, when the name Jesu by a due pronunciation is proposed to them to be worshipped, and they fear not only the name but also the Cross, the seal thereof; and not only the knees of earthly, heavenly, and hellish creatures are bowed, but also Insensible things do reverence it, and all tremble at his beck, when from a faithfull heart and a true mouth the name Jesus is pronounced, and pure hands imprint the salutiferous sign of the Cross: neither truly doth Christ say in vain to his Disciples, In my name they shall cast out Devils, &c. unless there were a certain vertue expressed in that name over divels [devils] and sick folk, serpents, and persons, and tongues, and so forth, seeing the power which this name hath, is both from the vertue of God the institutor, and also from the vertue of him who is expressed by this name, and from a power implanted in the very word. Hence is it that seeing every creature feareth and reverenceth the name of him who hath made it, sometimes even wicked and ungodly men, if so be they believe the invocation of Divine names of this kind, do bind devils, and operate certain other great things.

Chapter xiii. Of the members of God, and of their influence on our members.

We read in diverse places of the holy Scripture, of diverse members of God, and ornaments; but by the members of God, are understood manifold powers, most simply abiding in God himself, distinguished amongst themselves by the sacred names of God; but the garments of God and Ornaments, are as it were certain wayes and relations, or Emanations, or conduit pipes, by the which he diffuseth himself; the hemmes of which as oft as our mind shall touch, so often the Divine power of some member goeth forth, even as Jesus cryed [cried] out, concerning the woman with the bloody Issue, Some body hath touched me, for I perceive vertue to go forth from me. These members therefore in God are like to ours; but the Ideas and exemplars of our members, to the which if we rightly conform our members, then being translated into the same Image, we are made the true sons of God, and like to God, doing and working the works of God: therefore concerning the members of God, many things are drawn forth out of the Scriptures; for we read of his head in the Canticles; Thy head as Carmel, and the locks of thy head as the purple of a King; but this Carmel signifieth not the mountain in the Sea coast of Syria, but a little creature, which ingendreth [engendereth] the purple. Also of his eyes, eyelids and ears, we read in the Psalmes, the eyes of the Lord on the Just, and his ears to their prayers, his eyes look towards the poor, and his eyelids enquire [inquire] after the sons of men: also of his mouth, tast [taste], throat, lips, and teeth, we read in Esay, Thou hast not enquired at my mouth; and in the Canticles, Thy throat as the best wine for my beloved, that goeth down sweetly, causing the lips of those that are asleep to speak; there are also Nostrils, by the which (as we often find in the Law) he smelleth the sacrifices for a sweet odour: he hath shoulders, armes, hands, and fingers, of the which we read in Esay; the government is laid upon his shoulders; to whom is the Arm of the Lord revealed? and the Kingly Prophet singeth, thy hands O Lord have made me and fashioned me, and I will behold the heavens, the work of thy fingers; he hath also a right and left hand; hence the Psalmist saith, The Lord saith to my Lord, sit at my right hand: and of the left we read, in the Gospel, on which the damned shall be placed at the last day: further we read of the heart, breast, back, and back parts of God; as in the book of Kings, that God found David a man according to his own heart; we read also in the Gospel his breast upon which the Disciple sleeping conceived divine mysteries; and the Psalmist describeth his back, in the paleness of gold; and he himself saith in Jeremiah, I will shew my back and not my face in the day of their perdition, and he saith to Moses, Thou shalt see my back parts; of his feet the Psalmist also saith, Darkness under his feet, and in Genesis he is said to walk to the South. In like manner also we read of the garments, and ornaments of God, as with the Psalmist, the Lord hath reigned, he hath put on beauty, cloathed [clothed] with light as with a garment; and elsewhere, Thou hast put on comliness and beauty; The Abysse as a garment and his cloathing; and in Ezekiel, the Lord speaketh, saying, I spread my garment over thee and covered thy nakedness; moreover also we read of the rod, Staffe, Sword and Buckler of God, as in the Psalmist, Thy rod and thy staffe, they have comforted me; his truth hath compassed thee about as with a shield; and in Deuteronomy we read of the sword of his glory; and very many of this sort the sacred word declares to us; from which members and Divine ornaments, there is no doubt, but that our memhers and all things about us, and all our works, are both ruled, directed, preserved, governed, and also censured, as the prophet saith, He hath put my foot upon a rock, and directed my goings; and elsewhere he saith, Blessed be the Lord my God, who teacheth my hand to war, and my fingers to fight; and of his mouth he saith, the Lord hath put a new song into my mouth; and elsewhere our Saviour saith, I will give you a mouth and wisdom; and of the hair he saith, an hair of your head shall not perish; and in another place, the hairs of your head are numbred [numbered]; for the Almighty God seeing he would have us to be his Images and like to himself, hath framed members, limbs, and figures after many ways laid open in us, according to the similitude of his hidden vertues, as it were signs keeping the same order and proportion to them: whence the Mecubals of the Hebrews say, that if a man capable of the Divine influence do make any member of his body clean and free from filthiness, then it becometh Habitale and proper seat of the secret limb of God, and of the vertue to the which the same name is ascribed: so that if that member want any thing, the name being invocated, whence it dependeth, it is presently heard effectually, according to that, I will hear him, because he hath known my name; and these are the great and hidden mysteries, concerning which it is not lawfull to publish more.

Chapter xiiii. Of the Gods of the gentiles, and souls of the Celestiall bodies, and what places were consecrated in times past, and to what Deities.

The Philosophers have maintained, as we have shewed before, that the Heavens and Stars are Divine Animals, and their souls intellectuall, participating of the Divine mind; and they averre, that some separated substances are superior, others inferior to them, as it were governing and serving, which they call intelligences and Angels; moreover Plato himself affirmed, that Celestiall souls' are not confined to their bodies, as our souls to our bodies, but to be, where they will, and also that they rejoyce [rejoice] in the vision of God, and without any labor or pains do rule and move their bodies, and together in moving them do easily govern these inferior things; therefore they often called the souls of this kind, Gods, and appointed Divine honors for them, and dedicated prayers and sacrifices to them, and did worship them with Divine worship, and these are the gods to the which all people are attributed, concerning which Moses commanded in Deuteronomy, saying, least perchance your eyes being lifted up to Heaven, thou shouldest see the Sun, the Moon, and all the Stars of Heaven, and being turned back shouldest adore and worship them, to which all the Nations are subjected, which are under the Heaven; but the Lord Jehovah hath taken and brought you forth from the furnace of Egypt, that thou shouldest be an Hereditary people to himself; and in the same book chap. 17 he calleth the Sun, Moon, & Stars Gods; and the Doctors of the Hebrews upon that place of Genesis where it is said, that Abraham gave gifts to the sons of the concubines, viz. Shemoth, Steltoma, that is strange names, but left Isaac heir of all that he possessed, say, that the sons of the concubines were not in the blessing of Abraham, given to Jehovah the most high creator, but to strange gods and deities, but that Isaac and his seed were given to the omnipotent Jehovah, and in no part to any strange Deities; therefore they are upbraided in Deuteronomy, because they served strange gods and worshipped them they knew not, and to whom they were not given; and also Joshua Nave, after that the people were brought into the land of promise, their enemies overcome, and the lots of the possessions of Israel distributed, gave the people leave to choose that God whom they would worship, saying, leave is given you this day to choose whom you will especially serve, whether the gods which your fathers served in Mesopotamia, or the gods of the Amorites, whose land you inhabite; but the people answered, we will serve the Lord Jehovah, and he shall be our God; Joshua said to them, ye cannot do it, for the Lord Jehovah is holy, strong, and jealous; but the people persevering to serve Jehovah; he saith to them, ye are witnesses your selves, that ye have chosen for your selves the Lord, to serve him; take away therefore strange gods out of the midst of you, and incline your hearts to the Lord God of Israel and he erected a great stone saying, this stone shalbe for a witness, least perhaps afterwards ye will deny and lye [lie] to the Lord your God; therefore the other gods, to which the other Nations were given, were the Sun, Moon, twelve Signs, and other Celestial bodies, and Divine fabricks, yet not as they were bodies, but as the soul adhereth to them, and the whole Militia of Heaven, which Jeremy cals the queen of Heaven, that is the power by which the Heaven is governed, viz. the soul of the world, of which Jeremy saith, The sons gather sticks, and part thereof maketh a fire, and the women mingle oyl [oil], that they might make a cake for the Queen of heaven, neither was the worship of Doulia, to this Queen and other Celestiall souls prohibited them, but of Latria only, which they that gave, are reproved of the Lord; but the name of these souls or Gods, we have declared; but to what Regions, People, and Cities they were ascribed as proper and tutelar gods; Origen, Tertullian, Apuleius, Diodorus, and very many other historians, partly relate to us: Therefore all people worshipped their gods with their proper ceremonies; The Beotians, Amphiarus; The Africans, Mopsus; the Egyptians, Osiris and Isis; the Ethiopians, who inhabite Mero, Jupiter and Bacchus; The Arabians; Bacchus and Venus; the Scythians, Minerva; the Naucratians, Serapis; the Syrians, Atargates; the Arabians, Diaphares; the Africans, Celestus; the Nornians, Tibelenus: In Italy also by the free Cities consecration, Delventius, was the God of the Crustumensians, Viridianus of the Narvensians, Aucharia of the Æsculans, Narsia of the Volsians, Valentia of the Otriculans, Nortia of the Sutrinians, Curis of the Phaliscians; these especially were famous. The Latians did adore with the highest worship, Mars; the Egyptians, Isis; the Moors, Iuba; the Macedonians, Cabrius; the Carthaginians, Uranus; the Latines, Faunus; the Romans, Quirinus; the Sabines, Sangus; the Athenians, Minerva; Samos, Juno; Paphos, Venus; Lemnos, Vulcan; Naxos, Bacchus; Delphos, Apollo; and as Ovid singeth in his Fasti,

Athens do Pallas; Crete, Dian' implore.
The island
Lemnos Vulcan doth adore.
The Spartans,
Juno ----

The Carthaginians and Leucadians did worship Saturn; Crete, Pyreus, Homole, Ida, Elis and Lybia [Libia], Jupiter, where was his Oracle: Epirus, Latium, Gnidus, Lycia, Pisa, Macedonia, Mars; The Thermodonians, Scythians, and Thracia, the Sun; the Scythians did worship only one God, sacrificing an horse to him; the same also the Heliopolitans, and Assyrians did worship; and under the name of Apollo, the Rhodians, Hyperboreans and Milesians; and the mountains Parnassus, Phaselus, Cynthus, Soracte, were holy to him, and the Islands Delos, Claros, Tenedos and Mallois, a place in the Isle Lesbos, and the Grynean Grove or Town, besides the Cities, Patara, Chrysa, Tarapnas, Cyrrha, Delphos, Arrephina, Entrosi, Tegyra; Also Thebes, the Island Naxos, Nise a City of Arabia, Callichoros a river of Paphlagonia, were consecrated to him under the name of Bacchus and Dionysus; also Parnassus, and Cytheros mountains of Boetia, in which every second yeer [year] by course, the feasts Bacchanalia were kept; also the Thamaritans a people neighbors to the Hircanians did worship Bacchus with their own Ceremonies. The Assyrians first of all introduced the worship of Venus; then the Paphians in Cyprus, and Phenicians [Phoenicians], and Cythereans, whom (as Ageus reports) the Athenians followed: amongst the Lacedomonians, Venus Armatha was worshipped; at Delphos, Venus Epitybia; she was also adored of the Coans; and in Amathus an island of the Aegean Sea, and in Memphi [Memphis] a City of Egypt, and in Gnido and Sicilia, and the Idalian Grove, and the City Hypepa, and Erice a mountain of Sicilia, and in Calidonia, Cyrene and Samos; and no Deity of the old Gods (Aristotle being witness) is reported to have been worshipped with greater ceremonies, and in more places; the French did especially worship Mercury, calling him Teutates; so also the Arcadians, Hormopolites, Egyptians and Memphites. The Scythians about mount Taurus, did worship the Moon under the name of Diana; and in Ephesus, she had a most stately Temple; and in Mycena after the death of Thoantes, King of Taurica, her Image being stollen away by Iphigenia and Orestes, she was worshipped nigh Aricia. The Rite of Ceremonies being changed, she was worshipped likewise by the Magnesians, a people of Thessalia, and in Pisa, a City of Achaia, and in Tybur, and the Aventinum a Roman hill, and in Perga a City of Pamphila, and in Agras in the Kingdom of Attica; and the Catenian people are reported to have worshipped the Moon under the Masculine sexe; there were also other places consecreted to other Deities, as to Pallas, who is called Minerva, were consecrated Athens, the mountains Pyreus, Aracynthus, the River Tritones, and Alcomeneum a city of Boetia, and Neo one of the Islands of the Cyclades; The holy places of Ceres are, Eleusis, Attica, Enna, and Catana, Cities of Sicilia, and Mount Aetna; The chief worship to Vulcan was in the Island of Lemnos, and in Imbres, an Island of Thracia and Therasia, an Island consecrated to Vulcan, and also Sicilia. Vesta was the goddess of the Trojans, whom runaway Aeneas carryed into Italy, and to her are given the Phrygians, Idea, and Dindymus, mountains of Phrygia, and Reatum a City of Umbria; also the mountain Berecynthus, and Pessinuntium, a City of Phrygia; The Cities Carthage, Prosenna, Arhos, and Mycena, worshipped Juno; also the Island Samos, and the people of Phaliscia, Orchestus a City of Boetia, and Tenatus a Promontory of Laconia, were consecrated to Neptune, and the Trezenian Nation and City were under the protection of Neptune: of this sort therefore were the gods of the Nations, which did rule and govern them, which Moses himself in Deuteronomy calleth Gods of the earth, to the which all Nations were attributed, not signifying others then the heavenly Stars, and their souls.

Chapter xv. What our Theologians think concerning the Celestiall souls.

That the heavens and the heavenly bodies are animated with certain Divine souls, is not only the opinion of Poets, and Philosophers, but also the assertion of the sacred Scriptures, and of the Catholicks; for Ecclesiates also describeth the soul of heaven, and Jerom upon same same expresly confesseth it: In like manner Origen in his book of Principles, seemeth to think that Celestiall bodies are animated, because they are said to receive commands from God, which is only agreeable to a reasonable nature; for it ii written, I have enjoyned a command on all the Stars; Moreover Job seemeth to have fully granted, that the Stars are not free from the stain of sin; for there we read, the Stars also are not clean in his sight; which cannot verily be referred to the brightness of their bodies; moreover that the Celestiall bodies are animated, even Eusebius the Pamphilian thought, and also Austin [Augustine] in his Enchiridion; but of the latter writers Albertus Magnus in his book of four co-equals, and Thomas Aquinas in his book of Spiritual Creatures, and John Scot upon the second of the sentences; to these the most learned Cardinall Nich. Cusanus may be added; Moreover Aureolus himself in a strong disputation doth convince these things; who moreover thinketh it not strange, that the Heavenly bodies are worshipped with the worship of Doulia, and that their suffrages and helps are implored; to whom also Thomas himself consenteth, unless the occasion of Idolatry should hinder this rite; moreover Plotinus maintaineth that they know our wishes, and hear them; but if any one would contradict these, and account them sacrilegious tenents [tenets], let him hear Austin [Augustine] in his Enchiridion, and in his book of Retractions, and Thomas in the second book against the Gentiles, and in his Quodlibets, and Scotus upon the sentences, and Gulielmus Parisiensis in his sum of the universe, who unanimously answer, that to say the heavenly bodies are animated or inanimated, nothing belongeth to the Catholick faith. Therefore although it seemeth to many ridiculous, that the souls themselves be placed in the spheres and Stars, and as it were the Gods of the Nations, every one doth govern his Regions, Cities, Tribes, People, Nations and Tongues, yet it will not seem strange to those who rightly understand it.

Chapter xvi. Of Intelligences and spirits, and of the threefold kind of them, and of their diverse names, and of Infernall and subterraneall spirits.

Now consequently we must discourse of Intelligences, spirits and Angels. An Intelligence is an intelligible substance, free from all gross and putrifying mass of a body, immortall, insensible, assisting all, having Influence over all; and the nature of all intelligences, spirits and Angels is the same. But I call Angels here, not those whom we usually call Devils, but spirits so called from the propriety of the word, as it were, knowing, understanding and wise. But of these according to the tradition of the Magicians, there are three kinds, the first of which they call supercelestiall, and minds altogether separated from a body, and as it were intellectuall spheres, worshipping the one only God, as it were their most firm and stable unity or center; wherefore they even call them gods, by reason of a certain particiption of the divinity; for they are always full of God, and overwhelmed with the Divine Nectar. These are only about God, and rule not the bodies of the world, neither are they fitted for the government of inferior things, but infuse the light received from God unto the inferior orders, and distribute every ones duty to all of them; The Celestial intelligences do next follow these in the second order, which they call worldly Angels viz. being appointed besides the Divine worship for the spheres of the world, and for the government of every heaven & Star, whence they are divided into so many orders, as there are heavens in the world, & as there are Stars in the Heavens, and they called those Saturnine, who rule the Heaven of Saturn & Saturn himself; others Joviall, who rule the heaven of Jupiter and Jupiter himself, and in like maner they name diverse Angels, as well for the name, as the vertue of the other Stars; and because the old Astrologers did maintain maintain fifty five motions, therefore they invented so many Intelligences or Angels; they placed also in the Starry heaven, Angels, who might rule the signs, triplicities, decans, quinaries, degrees and Stars; for although the school of the Peripateticks assigne one onely intelligence to each of the Orbs of the Stars: yet seeing every Star and small part of the heaven hath its proper and different power and influence, it is necessary that it also have his ruling intelligence, which may confer power and operate; therefore they have established twelve Princes of the Angels, which rule the twelve signs of the Zodiack, and thirty six which may rule the so many Decans, and seventy two, which may rule the so many Quinaries of heaven, and the tongues of men and the Nations, and four which may rule the triplicities and Elements, and seven governors of the whole world, according to the seven planets, and they have given to all of them names, and seals, which they call Characters, and used them in their invocations, incantations, and carvings, decribing them in the instruments of their operations, images, plates, glasses, rings, papers, wax lights and such like; and if at any time they did operate for the Sun, they did invocate by the name of the Sun, and by the names of Solare Angels, and so of the rest. Thirdly they established Angels as Ministers for the disposing of those things which are below, which Origen calleth certain invisible powers to the which those things which are on earth, are committed to be disposed of. For sometimes they being visible to none do direct our journies [journeys] and all our businesses, are oft present at battels [battles], and by secret helpes do give the desired successes to their friends, for they are said, that at their pleasures they can procure prosperity, and inflict adversity. In like manner they distribute these into more orders, so as some are fiery, some watery, some aerial, some terrestrial; which four species of Angels are computed according to the four powers of the Celestiall souls, viz. the mind, reason, imagination, and the vivifying and moving nature; Hence the fiery follow the mind of the Celestiall souls, whence they concur to the contemplation of more sublime things, but the Aeriall follow the reason, and favor the rationall faculty, and after a certain manner separate it from the sensitive and vegetative; therefore it serveth for an active life, as the fiery for a contemplative, but the watery following the imagination, serve for a voluptuous life; The earthly following nature, favour vegetable nature; moreover they distinguish also this kind of Angels into Saturnine and Joviall, according to the names of the Stars, and the Heavens; further some are Orientall, some Occidentall, some Meridional, some Septentrionall; Moreover there is no part of the world destitute of the proper assistance of these Angels, not because they are there alone, but because they reign there especially, for they are everywhere, although some especially operate and have their influence in this place, some elsewhere; neither truly are these things to be understood, as though they were subject to the influences of the Stars, but as they have correspondence with the Heaven above the world, from whence especially all things are directed, and to the which all things ought to be conformable; whence as these Angels are appointed for diverse Stars, so also for diverse places and times, not that they are limited by time or place, neither by the bodies which they are appointed to govern, but because the order of wisdom hath so decreed, therefore they favor more, and patronize those bodies, places, times, stars; so they have called some Diurnall, some Nocturnall, other Meridionall; in like manner some are called Woodmen, some Mountaineers, some Fieldmen, some Domesticks. Hence the gods of the Woods, Country gods, Satyrs, familiars, Fairies of the fountains, Fairies of the Woods, Nymphs of the Sea, the Naiades, Neriades, Dryades, Pierides, Hamadryades, Potumides, Hinnides, Agapte, Pales, Pareades, Dodonæ, Feniliæ, Lavernæ, Pareæ, Muses, Aonides, Castalides, Heliconides, Pegasides, Meonides, Phebiades, Camenæ, the Graces, the Genii, Hobgoblins, and such like; whence they call them vulgar superiors, some the demi-gods [demigods] and goddesses; some of these are so familiar and acquainted with men, that they are even affected with humane perturbations, by whose instruction Plato thinketh that men do oftentimes wonderfull things, even as by the instruction of men, some beasts which are most nigh unto us, as Apes, Dogs, Elephants, do often strange things above their species; and they who have written the Chronicles of the Danes and Norwegians, do testifie, that spirits of diverse kinds in those regions are subject to mens commands; moreover some of these to be corporeall and mortall, whose bodies are begotten and dy [die], yet to be long lived is the opinion of the Egyptians and Platonists, and especially approved by Proclus. Plutarch also and Demetrius the Philosopher, and Aemilianus the Rhetoritian affirm the same; Therefore of these spirits of the third kind, as the opinion of the Platonists is; they report that there are so many Legions, as there are Stars in the Heaven, and so many spirits in every Legion, as in heaven it self Stars, but there are (as Athanasius delivereth) who think, that the true number of the good spirits, is according to the number of men ninety nine parts, according to the parable of the hundred sheep; others think only nine parts, according to the parable of the ten groats; others suppose the number of the Angels equal with men, because it is written, He hath appointed the bounds of the people according to the number of the Angels of God; and concerning their number many have written many things, but the latter Theologians following the master of the sentences, Austin [Augustine] and Gregory easily resolve themselves, saying, that the number of the good Angels transcendeth humane capacity; to the which on the contrary, innumerable unclean spirits do correspond, there being so many in the inferior world, as pure spirits in the superior, and some Divines affirm that they have received this by revelations; under these they place a kind of spirits, subterrany or obscure, which the Platonists call Angels that failed, revengers of wickedness, and ungodliness, according to the decree of the Divine justice, and they call them evill Angels and wicked spirits, because they oft annoy and hurt even of their own accords; of these also they reckon more legions, and in like manner distinguishing them according to the names of the Stars and Elements, and parts of the world, they do place over them Kings, Princes and Rulers and the names of them; of these, four most mischievous Kings do rule over the other [others], according to the four parts of the world; under these many more Princes of Legions govern, and also many of private offices. Hence the Gorgones, Statenocte, the furies. Hence Tisiphone, Alecto, Megæra, Cerberus: They of this kind of spirits, Porphyry saith, inhabite a place nigh to the earth, yea within the earth it self; there is no mischief, which they dare not commit; they have altogether a violent and hurtfull custome, therefore they very much plot and endeavor violent and sudden mischiefs; and when they make incursions, sometimes they are wont to lie hide [hid], but sometimes to offer open violence, and are very much delighted in all things done wickedly and contentiously.

Chapter xvii. Of these according to the opinion of the Theologians.

But our Theologians, together with Dionysius, maintain the three distinctions of Angels; every one of which they divide into three orders, they call these Hierarchies, those quires, whom Proclus also distinguisheth by the number nine. They place therefore in the superior Hierarchies, Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones, as it were supercelestiall Angels contemplating the order of the Divine providence; the first in the goodness of God; the second in the Essence of God, as the form; the third in the wisdom. In the middle Hierarchy they place the Dominations, Vertues, and Powers, as it were wordly Angels concurring to the government of the world; the first of these command that which the other execute; the second are Ministers to the Heavens and sometimes conspire to the working of miracles; the third drive away those things which seem to be able to disturbe the Divine Law; but in the inferior Hierarchy they place the Principalities, Archangels, [and Angels,] whom also Iamblicus reckoneth up, these as ministering spirits descend to take care of inferior things; the first of these take care of publike [public] things, princes and magistrates, provinces and kingdoms, every one those that belong to themselves; when we read in Daniel, But the prince of the Kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty one dayes; and Jesus the son of Syrach testifieth, that for every Nation a ruling Angel is appointed; which also Moses by his song in Deuteronomy seemeth to shew forth, saying, when the most High divided the Nations, he appointed them bounds according to the number of the Angels of God. The second are present at sacred duties, and direct the Divine worship about every man, and offer up the prayers and sacrifices of men before the gods. The third dispose every smaller matter, and to each thing each one is a preserver. There are also of these, who afford vertue to the least plants and stones and to all inferior things; to whom many things are common with God, many with men, and they are mediating Ministers; But Athanasius, besides Thrones, Cherubins, and Seraphins, who are next to God, and magnify him uncessantly with hymns and continuall praises, praying for our salvation, nameth the other orders, which by a common name he calleth the militia of heaven. The first of these is the Doctrinall order, of the which he was, who spake to Daniel, saying, Come, that I may teach thee what shall come to thy people in the last dayes: Then there is the tutelar order, of the which we read also in Daniel. Behold, Michael one of the Princes cometh to my help; and there, In that time shall rise up Michael a great Prince, who standeth for the sons of thy people; of this order was that Raphael also, who carryed forth and brought back Tobiah the younger; after this is the Procuratory Order, of the which mention is made in Job, where we read, if the Angel shall speak for him, he will intreat the Lord, and the Lord will be pleased with him; and of the same order is expounded also that which is written in the sixteenth Chapter of Ecclesiasticus, about the end. The works of the Lord have been made by his appointment from the beginning, and he hath distributed their portions from the time they have been made, he hath adorned their works for ever, they have not hungred [hungered], nor been wearied, and have not desisted from their works, none of them shall oppress his neighbor even for ever. The Ministeriall order followeth, of the which Paul to the Hebrews saith, Are they not all Ministring spirits, sent forth for them who shall be heirs of salvation? After these is the Auxiliary order, of the which we read in Esay, The Angels of the Lord went forth and slew in the tent of the Assyrians 185. thousands. The Receptory order of souls followeth this, of which we read in Luke, the soul of Lazarus was carryed by Angels into the bosom of Abraham, and there we are taught, that we should make to our selves friends of the unrighteous Mammon, that we may be received into eternall Tabernacles. Moreover, there is the order of the Assistants, of the which we reade in Zachary. These are the two sons of the Oyl [oil] of splendor, who assist the ruler of the whole earth, but the Theologians of the Hebrews do otherwise number and call these orders;

  1. for in the highest place are those which they call היות הקדש [Haioth Hacadosh] that is, creatures of sanctity, or by the which God אהיה [Eheieh] giveth the gift of being.
  2. In the second place succeed Ophanim אופנים that is forms or wheels, by the which God יהוה [Jehova] distinguisheth the Chaos:
  3. In the third place are Aralim אראלים great, strong, and mighty Angels, by the which Jehova [L: Tetragrammaton] Elohim pronounced or Jehova [L: Tetragrammaton] joyned with He היהוה administreth form to the liquid matter:
  4. In the fourth place are Hasmalim השמלים by which El אל God framed the effigies of bodies.
  5. The fifth order is Seraphim שרפים by the which God Elohim Gibor אלהים גיבר draweth forth the elements.
  6. The sixt [sixth] is Malachim מלאכים that is of Angels, by the which God Eloha אלוה, produceth metals.
  7. The seventh Elohim אלהים that is the gods by the which God Jehovah Sabaoth יהוה צבאות produceth vegetables;
  8. The eighth Beni Elohim בני אלהים that is the sons of God, by the which God Elohim Sabaoth אלהים צבאות procreateth Animals;
  9. The ninth & lowest Cherubim כרובים by the which God Sadai שדי createth mankind;
  10. under these is the order Animasticus called Issim אישים that is nobles, strong men, or blessed, by the which God Adonai אדני bestoweth prophecie.

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