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Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa: Of Occult Philosophy, Book III (part 3)

This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson, Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.

Chapter xxviii. How sometimes names of Spirits are taken from those things over which they are set.


I Finde yet another kinde of names given to the spirits from those things, which they are set over, their names being as it were borrowed from the Stars, or men, or places, or times, or such like things, the divine name being added at the end, thus. The spirit of Saturn is called Sabathiel: the Spirit of Jupiter, Zedekiel: the spirit of Mars, Madimiel: the Spirit of the Sun, Semeliel, or Semeschia; the Spirit of Venus, Nogahel; the spirit of Mercury, Cochabiah, or Cochabiel; the Spirit of the Moon, Jareahel, or Levanael. In like manner also they call the Spirits which are set over the signes by the names of the signes in order; from Aries Teletiel, Suriel, Tomimiel, Sartamiel,1 Ariel, Betuliel, Masniel, Acrabiel, Chesetiel, Gediel, Deliel, Dagymiel. And if we call them from the latin words, Ariel, Tauriel, Geminiel, Cancriel, Leoniel, Virginiel, Libriel, Scorpiel, Sagittariel, Capriel, Aquariel, Pisciel; and from the Planets, Saturniel, Ioviel, Martiel, Soliah, Veneriel, Mercuriel, Lunael, or Lunaiah. Now because (as we said before) all spirits, as well good as bad, seek for a union with man, which oftentimes in some sort they obtain, we read that some men are called Gods, and angels, and Divels [devils]. So the names of them which are endowed with any singular excellency of vertue, or with some desperate wickedness have departed this life, have obtained a place amongst the names of good and bad Demons, and are reckoned amongst them, whether we shall think that the souls of those men or the Genii whether good or bad are signified. So we read in Esdras that the name of the Archangel Ieremiel was from Ieremiah [Jeremiah] the Prophet. So Zachariel from Zacharia; and Uriel from Uriah the Prophet, whom Ioachim [Joachim] slue [slew]. In like manner Samuel, Ezekiel, Daniel, were the names of Angels as well as Prophets. Phaniel is the name of an Angel, and of the place where Jacob wrestled all night. Ariel is the name of an angel, and is the same as the Lion of God; sometimes also it is the name of an evil Demon, and of a City which is thence called Ariopolis, where the Idol Ariel was worshipped. We finde also in sacred writ that many names of evil Demons had their rise from most wicked men, or from the habitations of wicked men; as the name Astaroth which is the name of an evill Demon, was formerly the name of the City of Og King of Basan, in which dwelt giants; in like manner Astaroth was formerly the City of the Amorrhei; Raphaim a valley, and Ieramiel the country of the Allophyli; and also they were the names of Idols, and evill Demons; as Remma was the statue of the Idol of Damascus; Chamos the Idol of Moab; Melchim the Idol of the Amontae; Bel the Idol of Babylonians; Adramelech the Idol of the Assirians [Assyrians]; Dagon the Idol of the Allophyli. And Philo makes mention of seven golden Statues which the Amorrhei had, which they called the holy Nymphs, which being called upon did shew to the Amorrhei every hour their works; and the names of them were the names of women, which were the wives of seven wicked men, which consecrated them after the floud [flood], viz. Chanaan, Phut, Selath, Nebroth, Abirion, Elath, Desuat, and there were put upon them pretious [precious] stones, engraven, and consecrated, one of which had a vertue to restore sight to the blind; neither could any fire burn these stones; and the books were consecrated with stones, which in like manner could not be burnt with fire, nor cut with yron [iron], nor obliterated with water, until the angel of the Lord took them, and buried them in the bottome of the sea. Moreover we know that Nimbroth, Chodorlaomor, Balach, Amalech, names of Kings, have obtained the order of evill spirits. Also giants are called with divels [devils] after a common name, Enakim íé÷ðò because they did not partake of the image of God i.e. they have not received the splendor of the spiritual intellect, but their reason hath multiplied evil kinds of frauds & sins. Therefore they we not reckoned of the species of man (as saith Rabbi Moses the Egyptian) but of the species of beasts, and divels [devils], only that they have the shape of a man, and such (he saith) were the sons of Adam, which were predecessors to Seth after Abel; of which the wise men of the Hebrews said, that Adam begat Tochot úåëåú i.e. divels [devils]. But after that he had found favor in the eyes of God, he begot Seth after his own image, and likeness, i.e. who according to the image of God obtained a human perfection, which he that hath not, is not reckoned of the species of man, by reason of the pravities which are the cause of all evils and mischief. It is also (as saith Porphyry) the opinion of Magicians, that evill souls are turned into the nature of Divels [devils], and become as pernicious as they; which Christ confirmed, when he spake concerning Judas Iscariot: Have not I chosen twelve, and one of you is a divel? which divels therefore they call adventitious, because of mens souls, they are become Divels. Whence the names of wicked men and divels are the same, whether by these we call their souls, or evil Genii, which have taken upon them the names of wicked men, as if it were their persons. Also Behemoth, and the Leviathan signifie beasts, and divels [devils]. By these examples he that is inquisitive shall finde out the names of good, as well as of evil spirits.

1. English edition misreads "Sattamiel."

Chapter xxix. Of the Characters and Seals of spirits.

We must now speak of the Characters and Seals of spirits. Characters therefore are nothing else then certain unknowable letters and writings, preserving the secrets of the Gods, and names of spirits from the use and reading of prophane [profane] men, which the Ancients called Hyeroglyphicall [hieroglyphical], or sacred letters, because devoted to the secrets of the Gods only. For they did account it unlawfull to write the mysteries of the God [gods] with those Characters with which profane and vulgar things were wrote. Whence Porphyry saith, that the Ancients were willing to conceal God, and divine vertues by sensible figures, and by those things which were visible, yet signifying invisible things, as being willing to deliver great mysteries in sacred letters, and explain them in certain Symbolical figures; as when they dedicated all round things to the World, the Sun, the Moon, hope, and fortune, a circle to the heaven, and parts of a circle to the Moon, Pyranide [pyramids] and Obelisks to the fire, and Olympian Gods; a Cylinder to the Sun and Earth; a mans Yard [penis] to generation and Juno, to whom also by reason of the feminine sex the triangular figure. Wherefore this kind of Characters hath another root beside the pleasure, and authority of the institutor, of him I say, who received power of instituting, and consecrating these kind of letters, such as were many Prelates amongst divers Nations, and Sects of Religions, whose institutions came not to us, by reason that few of them were delivered by the Authors scatteringly, and by fragments. Of this kind of character therefore are those which Peter Apponus [Petrus de Abano] notes, as delivered by Honorius of Thebes, the figures whereof are such, being related to our Alphabet.1

Theban alphabet
1. This is based on Trithemius' Polygraphia: "Sequitur aliud alphabetum Honorii cognomento Thebani, cuius ministerio suas in magicis fatuitates abscondit, sicut Petrus de Apono testatur in suo maiore libro quarto" (Here follows another alphabet of Honorius surnamed the Theban, and the use thereof is for hiding the foolishness of his magic, as Petrus de Abano testifies in his greater fourth book.) I have not been able to identify any such passage in any of the many voluminous works of De Abano that I have searched. -JHP

Chapter xxx. Another manner of making Characters, delivered by Cabalists.

Amongst the Hebrews I finde more fashions of Characters, whereof one is most ancient, viz. an Ancient writing which Moses, and the Prophets used, the form of which is not rashly to be discovered [disclosed] to any; for those letters which they use at this day, were instituted by Esdras. There is also amongst them a writing which they call Celestiall, because they shew it placed and figured amongst the Stars, no otherwise then the other Astrologers produce images of signs from the lineaments of Stars. There is also a writing which they call Malachim, or Melachim, i.e. of Angels, or Regal; there is also another, which they call the passing through the River, and the Characters and figures of all these are such.

Celestiall writing.

Scriptura Celestis

The writing called Malachim.

Malachim alphabet

The writing called the passing of the River.

Transitus Fluvii. Described by Abraham ben Meir de Balmis. Mikneh Avram = Peculium Abrae: grammatica Hebraea una cum Latino nuper edita. Impressa Venetijs: In aedibus Danielis Bo[m]bergi, 1523, sig. B6v, thus preceding Agrippa by ten years. Also in Geoffroy Tory, Champ Fleury, Paris 1529, f. 76v ubi tamen: “Lettres Chaldaiques,” and Giovanni Agostino Panteo's Voarchadumia contra alchimiam, Venice, 1530, fols. 15r-15v. -JHP

There is moreover another fashion amongst the Cabalists, formerly had in great esteem, but now it is so common, that it is placed amongst prophane things, and it is this. The twenty seven Characters of the Hebrews may be divided into three Classes, whereof every one contains nine letters. The first, viz. è ç æ å ä ã â á à which are the seals or marks of simple numbers, and of intellectuall things, distributed into nine orders of Angels. The second hath ö ô ò ñ ð î ì ë é the marks of tens, and of Celestial things, in the nine Orbs of the heavens. The third hath the other four letters, with the five final, by order, viz. Tzaddi-final ó ï í ê ú ù ø ÷ which are marks of hundreds, and inferior things, viz. four simple Elements, and of five kinds of perfect compounds. They do now and then distribute these three Classes into nine Chambers, whereof the first is of unites [unities], viz. intellectual, celestial and elemental: The second is of Twos. The third of Threes, and so of the rest: These Chambers are framed by the intersection of four parallel lines, intersecting themselves into right angles, as is expressed in this following figure.

figure 18

Out of which being dissected into parts, proceed nine particular figures, viz.

figure 19

Which are of the nine Chambers, Characterizing their letters by the above written Notariacon: which if it be of one poynt [point] shews the first letter of that Chamber; if of two, the second; if of three, the third letter; as if thou wouldest frame the Character Michael ìàëéî, that comes forth thus, extended with five figures, viz.

figure 20

Which then are contracted to three figures, after this manner.

figure 21

Which then are contracted into one, yet the points Notariacon are wont to be omitted, and then there comes forth such a Character of Michael.

figure 22

There is yet another fashion of Characters, common to almost all letters, and tongues, and very easie, which is by the gathering together of letters; as if the name of the Angel Michael be given, the Characters thereof shall be framed thus.

In Hebrew.In Greek.In Latin.
figure 23 figure 24 figure 25

And this fashion amongst the Arabians is most received; Neither is there any writing which is so readily, and elegantly joyned [joined] to it self, as the Arabick. Now you must know that Angelicall spirits, seeing they are of a pure intellect, and altogether incorporeall, are not marked with any marks or Characters, and pingible figures, or any other humane signs; but we not knowing their essence, or quality, do from their names, or works, or otherwise, according to our fancies devote and consecrate to them figures, and marks, by which we cannot any way compel them to us, but by which we rise up to them; as not to be known by such Characters, and figures, and first of all we do set our senses both inward and outward, upon them; then by a certain admiration of our reason we are induced to a Religious veneration of them, and then are wrapt with our whole minde into an extaticall [ecstatic] adoration, and then with a wonderfull belief, an undoubted hope, quickening love we calling upon them in spirit, and truth, by true names and Characters do obtain from them that vertue, or power which we desire.

Chapter xxxi. There is yet another fashion of Characters, and concerning marks of spirits which are received by revelation.

There is another kind of Character received by Revelation only, which can be found out no other way: the vertue of which Characters is from the diety [deity] revealing, of whom there are some secret works, breathing out a harmony of some Divinity: or they are as it were some certain agreements or compacts of a league betwixt us and them. Of this kind there was a mark or sign shewed to Constantine, which many did call the Crosse write upon in Latin letters, In hoc vince i.e. in this overcome; and there was another revealed to Antiochus by Sirname Soteris in the figure of a pentangle, which signifies health; for being resolved into letters it speakes the word ugieia [ugieia] i.e. Health: in the faith, and vertue of which signes both Kings obtain'd a great victorie against their enemies. So Judas, who by reason of that was afterward sirnamed Machabeus, being to fight with the Jews against Antiochus Eupator, received from an Angel that notable sign MKBI in the vertue of which they first slew 14000 with an infinite number of Elephants, then again 35000. of their enemies: For that sign did represent the name Jehovah and was a memorable emblem of the name of 72. letters by the equality of number, and the exposition thereof is, äåäé íéìàá êåîë éî [MI KMVK BALIM IHVH] i.e. Who is there amongst the strong as Jehovah [Tetragrammaton]1 The figures of these memorable signs are to be framed thus.

1. "Of this kind ... Tetragrammaton": see Reuchlin, De Arte Cabalistica 3. On the Art of the Kabbalah Tr. Martin and Sarah Goodman. Abaris Books, Inc: Lincoln Nebraska, 1983, p. 310 (Latin), 313 (English translation).

figure 26

Moreover of those signs and Characters Porphyrie [Porphyry] speaks in his book De Responsis, saying that they did signifie the gods themselves, by whom they did enjoy things, and by which they were called forth, and which were to be offered to them: And did show the figures of the images what they should be; and that he perceived these things concerning the Oracle of Proserpina. He saith moreover that Hecate commanded how images should be constituted to her, and that they were to be cirrounded [surrounded] with wormwood, and that domestick mice were to be painted, & the finest ornaments such as were most pleasing to her, and so many mice as her forms were to be taken; then blood, myrrhe, storax, and other things were to he burnt: Which things if they were done, she would appear, and answer the worker thereof by dreams. But we shall here under-write the Oracle of Hecate; for thus she speaks,

Marke I will teach What statue thou shalt make
For me; boughs of the wood, and wormwood take,
Then garnisg it, on't paint domestick mice;
Let ornaments be fair, and of great price.
Then frankincense, myrrh, storax mix't with blood
Of mice, then sing thou words secret and good;
As thou seest shapes of mine, so on it lay,
As many reall mice; then take the bay,
And out of th' trunk thereof a case prepare
To put it in; then see thou have a care,
That to the Statue thou devoutly pray,
Also thy debts, and vows take care thou pay;
If that these things that here required be,
Thou shalt perform, in dreams thou shalt me see.

Such were in old times the secret mysteries of the gods and Demons of the Gentils [gentiles], by which they did perswade [persuade] themselves to be compelled, detained, and hound by men. Hence Jamblicus [Iamblichus], and Porphyrie [Porphyry] teach that he that calls upon sacred Demons must observe them, with their proper honour, and to distribute to each what is convenient to every one, as thanks, oblations, gifts, sacrifices, with words, Characters sutable [suitable] to their conditions, and most like unto them; or else he should never obtain the presence of the Deities, and Demons, and the desired effect; Moreover if they were called upon, yet they shall be constrained to hurt them especially who did it neglegently.

Chapter xxxii. How good spirits may be called up by us, and how evil spirits may be overcome by us.

By the efficacy of Religion the presence of spirits doth dispose the effect, neither can any work of wonderfull efficacy in Religion be done, unless some good spirit the ruler and finisher of the work be there present. Now good spirits, if they may be divers wayes called up, yet can by no bonds, or vary hardly be allayed by us, but we must by some sacred things beseech them, as we read in Apuleius, by the Celestiall Stars, by the infernall dieties [deities], by the naturall elements, by the silence of the night, by the increase of the Country of Nilus, by the secrets of Memphis and elsewhere is Porphyrie [Porphyry]: Thou who art risen out of the mud, who sittest in thy place, who sailest in ships, who every hour dost change thy shape, and art changed in each sign of the Zodiack. By these, and such like, Symbolicall orations and hymnes, because they are signes of Divine vertues, spirits did sometimes apply themselves to humane uses: not as being compelled by any kind of necessity, but of their own accord, and by a kind of custom, did, being overcome by the prayers of them that called on them, more easily yeeld: whence Porphyrie in his book De Responsis Hecate saith,

I by thy prayers being overcome
Came thither -----

And in another place in the same book he saith,

Conquer'd by pray'r the Deities above
Come down on th' earth and future things foreshew.

Also the divining of sutable things works so with mans mind, that good spirits do assist us willingly, and communicate their power and vertue to us, dayly [daily] helping us with illuminations, inspirations, oracles, prophecyings, dreams, miracles, prodigies, divinations, and auguries, and working upon and acting upon our spirits, as images like to them, by framing them by their influences, and making them most like to themselves even so far, as that oftentimes our spirit doth as surely work wonderfull things as the Celestial spirits are wont to do. But evil spirits are overcome by us through the assistance of the good, especially when the petitioner is very pious and devout, and sings forth sacred words, and a horrible speech, as by conjuring the Divine power by the venerable names, and signs of supernaturall powers, by miracles, by Sacraments, by sacred mysteries, and such like; which conjurations, or adurations, in as much as they are done by the name and power of Religion, and Divine vertue, those evil spirits are afraid of; whence also oftentimes prophane men do bind or allay by such kinde of sacred conjurations, evil spirits not enduring such things, whence Cyprian in his book Quod Idola Dii non sint, saith; that spirits being adjured by the true God to presently yeeld to us, and confesse, and are forced to go out of possessed bodies, and either presently leap out, or by degrees vanish, according as the faith of the Patient is helping, or grace of the swearer aspires. And Athanasius in his book De Variis Questionibus saith that there is no word more terrible and more destructive to the power of Devils then the beginning of the 68. Psalm, Arise O God, and let thine enemies be scattered; For assoon as that word is spoken, the devill vanisheth away howling. And Origen against Celsus saith, that the naming the name Jesus hath oftentimes cast many devils as well out of the souls of men as their bodies, and hath exercised much power in them out of whom the devils were cast. Also we do oftentimes with threats and revilings bind or repell evil spirits, especially the lesser, as Haggs, Incubi, and such like, as we read in Lucan concerning that witch saying,

I will now call you up by a true name,
The stygian dogs I in the light supreme
Will leave, and follow you also through grave,
From all the Urnes in death I will you save,
Thee O Hecate, unto the gods will shew,
(To whom t' addresse thy self in other hew,
Thou wast wont) in wan form, and without grace,
And thee forbid to change Erebus his face.

And in Philostratus we read, when Apollonius and his companions were travelling in a bright Moon-shining night, that the Phantasme of a Hagge met them, and some times changed it self into this shape, & some times into that, and some times vanished out of their sight. Now assoon as Apollonius knew what it was, grievously reviling it advised his companions to do the like: for he knew that that was the best remedy against such invasions. His companions did as he advised, and the Phantasme presently with a noise vanished away like a shadow: For so fearfull is this kind of spirits, that they are moved, tremble, and are compelled by a feigned terrour, and false and impossible threats. Whence Chereon the holy scribe saith that these are those things by which especially the spirits are compelled. There is moreover as hath been above said, a certain kind of spirits not so noxious, but most neer to men, so that they are even affected with humane passions, and many of these delight in mans society, and willingly dwell with them: Some of them dote upon women, some upon children, some are delighted in the company of divers domestick and wild animals, some inhabit Woods and Parks, some dwell about fountains and meadows. So the Fairies, and hobgoblins inhabit Champian fields; the Naiades fountains: the Potamides Rivers; the Nymphs marshes, and ponds: the Oreades mountains; the Humedes Meadows; the Dryades and Hamadryades the Woods, which also Satyrs and Sylvani inhabit, the same also take delight in trees and brakes, as do the Naptæ, and Agaptæ in flowers; the Dodonæ in Acorns; the Paleæ and Feniliæ in fodder and the Country. He therefore that will call upon them, may easily doe it in the places where their abode is, by alluring them with sweet fumes, with pleasant sounds, and by such instruments as are made of the guts of certain animals and peculiar wood, adding songs, verses, inchantments sutable [enchantments suitable] to it, and that which is especially to be observed in this, the singleness of the wit, innocency of the mind, a firm credulity, and constant silence; wherefore they do often meet children, women, and poor and mean men. They are afraid of and flie from men of a constant, bold, and undaunted mind, being no way offensive to good and pure men, but to wicked and impure, noxious. of this kind are hobgoblins, familiars, and ghosts of dead men. Hence Plotinus saith, that the souls of men are sometimes made spirits: and of men well deserving are made familiars which the Greeks call Eudemons, i.e. blessed spirits: but of ill deserving men, hags, and hobgoblins, which the Greeks call Cacodemons, i.e. Evil spirits; But they may be called ghosts when it is uncertain whether they have deserved well or ill. Of these apparitions there are divers examples; such was that which Pliny the Junior makes mention of concerning the house of Athenodorus the Philosopher of Tharsis in which there appeared with a sudden horrible noise the ghost of an old man. And Philostratus tels of the like of a hag of Menippus Lycius the Philosopher turned into a beautifull woman of Corinth, whom Tyaneus Apollonius took to be a hobgoblin; the same at Ephesus, the like in the shape of an old beggar who was the cause of the pestilence, who therefore being by his command stoned, there appeared a mastive [mastiff] dog, and presently the pestilence ceased. We must know this that whosoever shall intellectually work in evil spirits, shall by the power of good spirits bind them; but he that shall work only worldlily, shall work to himself judgement and damnation.

Chapter xxxiii. Of the bonds of spirits, and of their adjurations, and castings out.

The bonds by which spirits are bound, besought, or cast out, are three; Some of them are taken from the elementall world, as when we adjure a spirit by any inferiour and naturall things of affinity with or adverse to them, in as much as we would call upon or cast them out, as by flowers, and herbs, by animals, by snow by ice, by hell, by fire, and such like, as these also are oftimes mixed with Divine praises, and blessings, and consecrations, as appears in the song of the three Children, and in the Psalm, Praise ye the Lord from the heavens, and in the consecration and blessing of the Paschal taper. This bond doth work upon the spirits by an apprehensive vertue under the account of love, or hatred, in as much as the spirits are present with or favour, or abhor anything that is naturall or against nature, as these things themselves love or hate one the other. Hence that of Proclus, As the Lion fears a cock, especially a white cock: so doth a spirit appearing in the form of a lion vanish away at the sight of a cock. The second bond is taken from the Celestial world, viz: when we adjure them by the heaven, by Stars, by their motions, rayes, light, beauty, clearness, excellency, fortitude, influence, and wonders, and such like: and this bond works upon spirits by way of admonition, and example. It hath also some Command, especially upon the ministring spirits, and those who are of the lowest orders. The third bond is from the Intellectual and divine world, which is perfected by religion, that is to say, when we swear by the sacraments, by the miracles, by the divine names, by the sacred Seals and other mysteries of Religion; wherefore this bond is the highest of all and the strongest, working upon the spirits by Command and power; But this is to be observed, that as after the universal providence, there is a particular one; and after the universal soul, particular soules; so in the first place we Invocate by the superior bonds, and by the names and powers which rule the things, then by the inferior, and the things themselves; We must know further, that by these bonds not only Spirits, but also all creatures are bound, as Tempests, burnings, flouds [floods], plagues, diseases, force of armes, and every animal, by assuming them, either by the manner of Adjuration, or by the way of deprecation or benediction, as in the charming of Serpents, besides the naturall and celestial, by rehearsing out of the mysteries and Religion, the curse of the Serpent in terrestrial Paradise, the lifting up of the Serpent in the wilderness; moreover by assuming that verse of the Psalm 91. Thou shalt walk upon the Aspe and the Basiliske, and shalt tread upon the Lion and Dragon: Superstition also very much prevaileth in these, by the translating of some Sacramental rites to that which we Intend to bind or hinder, as, of Excommunication, burial or exequies for the driving away of diseases, Serpents, Mice or Wormes, which thing we read to have bin thus done in divers places, and it is wont to be done even as yet.

Chapter xxxiiii. Of the Animasticall order, and the Heros.

After the Quires of the blessed spirits, the Animastical order is the next, which the Hebrew Theologians call Issim, that is, strong and mighty men; the Magicians of the Gentiles, call Heroes and Demi-gods, or [half] gods half men: whom Fulgentius, an Author not to be contemned, supposeth were so called, either because that for the meanness of their desert they are not judged worthy of Heaven, nor yet are accounted Terresterial for the reverence of Grace; of this kind in old time were Priapus, Hippo, Vertumnus; or because they being eminent in this life for divine vertues, and benefits for mankinde, after this mortal man put off, are translated into the quire of the blessed gods; alwayes providing for mortal men the same vertues and benefits which they long since had in this life: or because they were procreated from the secret seed of the superiors, whom they think were begotten by the mixture of Gods or Angels with men, & therefore obtaining a certain middle nature, so as they are neither Angels nor men: which opinion Lactantius also followeth; and there are even at this time those who have commerce and conjugall mixture with spirits; and all now believe that Merline, a British Prophet, was the son of a Spirit, and born of a virgin: and also they imagined, that Plato the Prince of wisdome was born of a virgin, impregnated by a phantasme of Apollo. And it is delivered in Histories, that certain women of the Gothes (which they call Alrumnæ) eminent both for beauty and ingenuity, long since at Filimire, or (as others say) at Idanthresie, going forth out of the tents of the King of the Gothes, wandred in the desarts [deserts] of Scythia in Asia beyond the Marshes of Meotis, and there being Impregnated by Fanni and Satyres, brought forth the first Hunni; more over Psellus is the Author, that Spirits sometimes cast forth seed, from the which certain little creatures arise: Therefore these Heroes have no less power in disposing and ruling these inferior things, than the Gods and angels, and have both their offices and their dignities distributed to them: and therefore to them no otherwise than to the Gods themselves were Temples, Images, Altars, Sacrifices, Vows, and other mysteries of religion dedicated. And their names invocated had divine and magical vertues for the accomplishing of some miracles: which thing Eusebius declareth that many tried by the invocation of the name of Apollonius of Tyana; and more of this kinde we read of, both in the Poets, and also in the Historians and Philosophers, concerning Hercules, Atlas, Aesculapius and the other Heroes of the Gentiles; but these are the follies of the Gentiles; but as concerning our holy Heroes we beleve that they excel in divine power, and that the soul of the Meschihæ doth rule over them (as the Theologians of the Jews also testify) that is Jesus Christ, who by divers of his Saints, as it were by members fitted for this purpose, doth administer and distribute divers gifts of his grace in these inferior parts, and every one of the Saints do enjoy a particular gift of working. Whence they being implored by us with divers prayers and supplications according to the manifold distribution of graces, every one doth most freely bestow their gifts, benefits, and graces on us much more readily, truly, & also more abundantly than the Angelical powers by how much they are nigher to us, and more allyed to our natures, as they who in times past were both men, and suffered humane affections and infirmities; and their names, degrees and offices are more known to us; Therefore out of the number of these almost Infinite, there are twelve chief, viz. the twelve Apostles of Christ, who (as the evangelical truth saith) sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel, who in the Revelations are distributed upon twelve foundations, at the twelve gates of the heavenly City, who rule the twelve Signs, and are sealed in the twelve pretious [precious] Stones, and the whole world is distributed to them; but their true names are these; the first éôëä ïéòîù Symehon Hacephi, this is Peter. The second éæåòìà Alousi, whom we call Andrew. The third äá÷òé Jahacobah, this is James the greater. The fourth ùåôéìåô Polipos, whom we call Philip. The fift äéëøá Barachiah, this is Bartholomew. The sixt äðäåé Johanah, whom we name Iohn [John]. The seventh is éðîú Thamni, whom we call Thomas. The eighth is called ïåãî Medon, for whom we say Matthew. The ninth is á÷òé Jahacob, this is James the less. The tenth is àôéèë Catepha, that is Thadeus. The eleventh íàîù Samam, who is Simon the Canaanite. The twelfth äéúúî Matattiah, who is called Matthias. After these are the seventy two disciples of Christ, who also themselves do rule so many Quinaries of Heaven, & Tribes, People, Nations and Tongues. After whom is an Innumerable multitude of Saints, who also themselves have received divers Offices, Places, Nations and People into their protection and patronage, whose most apparent miracles at the faithfull prayers of those that Invocate them, we plainly see and confess.

Chapter xxxv. Of the Mortall and Terrestrial Gods.

Next after these are the mortall Gods, whom in like manner also we call Heroes, and Terrestrial gods, or Companions of the superiour Gods: viz. Kings, Princes, and Priests, by whom this world is governed, and disposed by their Laws, whom therefore as Gods we receive, worship and reverence, because God himself hath suffered his name to be communicated to them, and by a proper denomination hath confirmed it to them, calling them gods, even as he spake to Moses, saying, I have made thee a God to Pharaoh; and elsewhere he hath commanded concerning them, saying, Thou shalt not detract from the gods; and again, if Theft shall lie hid, the Master of the House shall apply himself to the Gods; and the Psalmist saith, The princes of the people were gathered together with the God of Abraham: because that the mighty gods of the Earth are vehemently lifted up; and elsewhere God stood in the counsels of the gods, but in the midst he Judgeth the gods; and a little after, I have said ye are all gods, and sons of the most high; moreover he hath commanded concerning the worshipping and reverencing of them, decreeing tithes and first fruits for them, and giving them the power of the sword, and forbidding any to curse them, and commanding obedience to be yielded to them, though wicked. Hence all Antiquity called their princes gods, and worshipped them as divine powers, as Janus testifieth in Ovid, in his first book of Fasti saying,

When th' Earth of th' Gods was potent, I did raign
And deities mix'd were with seats humane.

And Divine Plato in his third book de Republica appointed that princes both alive and dead should be celebrated with divine honors, which Institution hath ben received amongst all Nations, even from the first age, viz. to deify their princes with divine honours, and to consecrate them with eternall memory; Hence they did impose their never dying names on Cities, Provinces, Mountains, Rivers, Lakes, Ilands [islands] and Seas; And dedicated to them with great pomp, Piramides [pyramids], Colosses [colossuses], triumphal Arches, Trophies, Statues, Temples, Plays, Feasts; and also called the Heavens, Stars, Dayes and Months by their names. Hence January from Janus, July from Julius, August from Augustus; so dies Mercurii from Mercury Trismegist, Dies Jovis from Jupiter, which custome we read was observed not only by the Aegyptians Greeks and Romans, but also by the extream barbarous people, as Gothes, Danes and Teutones. Hence Saxo Grammaticus being witness, what day the former call Dies Mercurii, these do call Othines [Odin's] day: what day the former name from Jupiter, these call Thors day, from Othin and Thor in times past Kings of Gotland and Denmark; neither are they for any other reason called Gothes, then that they call in their language their chiefest god Got. Hence also the Dutch are thus called, because they named the god Mars, whom they worshipped, Teutan; by which name the Gaules also called Mercury. Therefore are Kings and Priests (if they be Just) companions of the gods and endowed with the like power. Hence they cure diseases by their touch and word and sometimes command the times and the Heavens, as Virgil sang of Augustus,

It rains all night, i'th' morn the raies [rays] return;
Caesar with Jove divided hath the throne.

And the Scripture testifieth of Joshuah, who fighting in Gibeon, commanded the Sun and Moon, saying, Sun stand still in Gibeon and thou Moon in the Valley of Ajalon; and the Sun and the Moon stood still at his command, neither did the Sun set in the space of one day, untill he had revenged himself of his Enemies, and the Lord obeyed the voyce of man; Also Moses divided the red Sea, and Joshua Jordan, and led the people over dry shod; The like did Alexander the Macedonian, leading forth his Army; Sometimes also they are endowed with a prophetick spirit, as we read of Chaiaphas in the holy Scripture, that he prophesied, for that he was High Priest that year: Seeing therefore it is so that the Lord of the Earth would that Kings and Priests be called gods by communication of name and power, surely we ought also to deserve well of them, and to prefer their Judgments before ours, and simply to obey, supplicate and adore, and worship with all kinde of worship and reverence the most high God in them.

Chapter xxxvi. Of Man, how he was created after the Image of God.

The most abundant God (as Trismegisus saith) hath framed two Images like himself, viz. the world and man, that in one of these he might sport himself with certain wonderfull operations: but in the other, that he might enjoy his delights, who, seeing he is one, hath created the world one, seeing that he is infinite, hath created the world round seeing he is eternall, he hath created the world incorruptible and everlasting: seeing he is Immense, he hath created the world the greatest of all things; seeing he is the chiefest life, he hath adorned the world with vitall seeds, begetting all things out of himself; and seeing he is omnipotent, by his will alone, not by any necessity of nature, he hath created the world, not out of any foregoing matter, but out of nothing; and seeing he is the chief goodness, embracing his word, which is the first Idea of all things, with his choicest will, and essentiall love, he hath fabricated this externall world after the example of the Internall, viz. Ideall world, sending forth nothing of the essence of the Idea, but created of nothing that which he had from eternity by the Idea: God also created after his Image; for as the world is the Image of God, so man is the Image of the world. Hence some think that it is spoken, that man is ot created simply the Image of God, but after the Image, or the Image of the Image; therefore he is called Microcosme, that is the lesser world; The world is a Rationall creature, Immortall; man in like manner is rationall but mortal, that is, dissolvable; for (as Hermes saith) seeing the world it self is immortall, it is Impossible that any part of it can perish. Therefore to dye [die], is a vain name, and even as Vacuum is no where, so also Death; Therefore we say a man dieth, when his Soul and body are separated, not that anything of them perisheth or is turned into nothing. Notwithstanding the true Image of God is his word. The wisdome, life, light and Truth existing by himself, of which Image mans soul is the Image, in regard of which we are said to be made after the Image of God, not after the Image of the world, or of the creatures; for as God cannot be touched, nor perceived by the ears, nor seen with the eyes; so the soul of man can neither bee seen, heard nor touched. And as God himself is infinite, and cannot be compelled by any, so also the minde of man is free, and cannot be enforced or bounded. Further, as God comprehendeth this whole world, and whatsoever is in it in his minde alone; so mans minde comprehendeth it even in thought; and that which is peculiar to him alone with God, as God moveth and governeth all this world by his beck alone, so mans minde ruleth and governeth his body. Therefore it was necessary, that the minde of man thus sealed by the word of God, should put on also the corporeall man, after the most compleat example of the world: Therefore man is called the other world, and the other Image of God, because he hath in himself All that is contained in the greater world, so that there remaineth nothing which is not found even truly and really in man himself, and all these things do perform the same duties in him, as in the great world: There are in him the four Elements, with the most true properties of their nature, and in him an ethereal body, the Chariot of the soul in proportion corresponding to the Heaven: There are in him the vegetative life of Plants, the senses of animals, of celestial spirits, the Angelical reason, and the Divine understanding, and the true conjunction, and divine possession of all these things flowing together into one. Hence in sacred Letters man is called every creature, and not onely man being made another world doth comprehend all the parts thereof in himself, but also doth receive and contain even God himself. Hence Xystus the Pythagorean, saith, that the soul of man is the temple of God: which thing Paul also more clearly expressed, saying, ye art the Temple of God; & the same the sacred Scripture testifieth in many places: Therefore man is the most express Image of God, seing man conteineth in himself all things which are in God: but God by a certain eminency conteineth all things through his power, & simply, as the cause and beginning of all things; but he hath given this power to man, that he should in like manner contein all things, but by a certain act & composition, as the knot, tye [tie], and bond of all things: Therefore man only rejoyceth [rejoices] in this honor, that he hath similitude with all, operation with all, and conversation with all: He Symbolizeth with the matter in a proper subject; with the Elements in a fourfold body; with Plants in a vegetative vertue; with animals in a sensitive faculty; with the Heavens in an Etherial spirit, and influx of the superior parts on the inferiour: with the Angels in understanding and wisdome; with God, in conteining all things: He is preserved with God, and the Intelligences, by faith and wisdome: with the heavens and heavenly things, by reason and discouse: with all Inferiour things, by sense and Dominion: and acteth with all, and hath power on all, even on God himself, by knowing and loving him; and as God knoweth all things, so also man can know all things Intelligible, seeing he hath for an adequate Object, Ens in general, or (as others say) Truth itself; neither is there any thing found in man, nor any disposition, in which something of divinity may not shine forth; neither is there any thing in God, which may not also he represented in man: Whosoever therefore shall know himself, shall know all things in himself; especially he shall know God, according to whose Image he was made; he shall know the world, the resemblance of which he beareth; he shall know all creatures, with which he Symbolizeth; and what comfort he can have and obtain, from Stones, Plants, Animals, Elements, Heavens, from Spirits, Angels, and every thing, and how all things may be fitted for all things, in their time, place, order, measure, proportion and Harmony, and can draw and bring to himself, even as a Loadstone Iron; And Geber in his summ of Alchimy [Alchemy] teacheth, that no man can come to the perfection of this art, who shall not know the principles of it in himself; but by how much the more every one shall know himself, by so much he obtaineth the greater power of attracting it, and by so much operateth greater and more wonderfull things, and will ascend to so great perfection, that he is made the Son of God, and is transformed into that Image which is God, and is united with him, which is not graunted to Angels, the world, or any creature, but to man only, viz. to have power to be made the Son of God, and to be united to him: but man being united to God, all things which are in man, are united, especially his minde, then his spirits and animal powers, and vegetative faculty, and the Elements are to the matter, drawing with it self even the body, whose form it hath been, leading it forth into a better condition, and an heavenly nature, even untill it be glorified into Immortality. And this which we have spoken is the peculiar gift of man, to whom this dignity of the divine image is proper, and common to no other creature: But there are some Theologians, who make those powers of mans memory, understanding, will, the image of the Divine trinity; and there are [those] who going further, do place this image not only in these three faculties which they call first acts, but also in the second acts; And as the memory representeth the father, the understanding the son, the will the Holy Ghost; So also the word produced from our understanding, and love flowing from our will, and the understanding it self having a present object and producing it, do set forth the son, spirit and father; and the more mysterious Theologians teach that moreover all our members do represent something in God whose image they bear; and that even in our passions we represent God, but by a certain Analogy: for in the holy word we read of the wrath, fury, repentance, complacency, love, hatred, pleasure, delectation, delight, indignation of God, and such like, and we have spoken something of the members of God, which may be congruent here; Also Mercurius Trismegistus confessing the divine Trinity, describeth it understanding, life and brightness, which elsewhere he calleth the word, the minde and the spirit, and saith that man made after the image of God doth represent the same Trinity; for there is in him an understanding minde, a verifying word, and a spirit, as it were a Divine brightness diffusing it self on every side, replenishing all things, moving and knitting them together: but this is not to be understood of the naturall spirit which is the middle by the which the soul is united with the flesh and the body, by the which the body liveth and acteth, and one member worketh on another, of the which spirit we we have spoken in the first book. But we here speak of the naturall spirit, which yet in some sort is also corporeall, notwithstanding it hath not a grosse body, tangible and visible, but a most subtile body and easie to be united with the mind viz. that superiour and Divine one which is in us; neither let anyone wonder, if we say that the rationall soul is that spirit, and a corporeall thing, or that it either hath or favoureth something of corporiety while it is in the body and useth it as an instrument, if so be that ye shall understand, what, amongst the Platonists, that Etheriall body of the soul, and chariot of the same may be; therefore Plotine [Plotinus] and all the Platonists, after Trismegist [Trismegistus], in like manner, place three things in man, which they call the Supreme, lowest and middle: The Supreme is that Divine thing which they call the mind, or superiour portion, or illuminated intellect. Moses in Genesis calleth it the breath of life, viz. breath from God or his spirit inspired into us; The lowest is the Sensitive soul which they also call an Image: Paul the Apostle nameth it the Animall man. The middle is the reasonable spirit knitting and tying together both extreams [extremes], viz. the Animal soul with the mind favouring of the nature of both extreams: yet it differeth from that Supream [supreme] which is called the illuminated intellect, the mind, light, and supream portion; it differeth also from the Animall soul, from the which, the Apostle teacheth us, that we ought to separate it, by the power of the word of God, saying, the Word of God is lively and powerfull, more penetrating then a two edged sword, peircing [piercing] even to the dividing of the soul and spirit: for as that supream portion never sinneth, never consenteth to evil, and alwayes resisteth errour [error] and exhorteth to the best things; so that inferior portion and Animall soul is alwayes overwhelmed in evil, in sin and concupiscence, and draweth to the worst things, of the which Paul saith, I see another Law in my members, leading me captive to the law of sin: The Minde therefore the supream [supreme] portion is never damned; but when its companions are to be punished, goeth away unhurt into its Originall: But the spirit, which by Plotinus is called the reasonable soul, seeing it is by its nature, free, and can according to his pleasure adhere to either of them, if it constantly adhere to the superiour portion, is at length united and beautified with it, untill it be assumed into God: if it adhere unto the inferior soul, it is depraved, and becomes vitious [vicious], untill it be made a wicked spirit. But thus much concerning the mind and spirit: now let us see concerning the speech or word. Mercurius thinketh this of the same value for immortality: for speech or word is that without which nothing is done or can be done; for it is the expression of the expressor and of the thing expressed; and the speaking of the speaker, and that which speaketh, is speech or word: and the conception of the conceiver and that which conceiveth, is the word: and the writing of the writer and that which writeth, is the word: and the forming of the former and that which formeth, is the word; and the creation of the Creator, and that which createth, is the word: and the doing of the doer, and that which is done is the word: and the knowledge of him that knoweth and the thing knowen is the word: and every thing that can be spoken is but a word, and its called equality: for it carrieth it self equally towards all; seeing that it is not one thing more then another, equally bestowing on all, that they may be, that which they are, neither more nor lesse; and it self being sensible, doth make it self and all things sensible, as light maketh it self & all things visible; therefore the world is called by Mercurius the bright son of the mind; for the conception by the which the mind conceived it self, is the intrinsecall word generated from the mind viz. the knowledge of it self: But the extrinsecall and vocall word, is the of-spring [offspring] and manifestation of that word, and a spirit proceeding out of the mouth with sound and voice, signifying something: but every voice of ours, speech and word unlesse it be formed by the voice of God, is mingled with the air and vanisheth; but the spirit and word of the Lord remaineth, life and sense accompanying it. Therefore all our speech, words, spirit and voice have no power in Magick, unless they be formed by the divine word: & Aristotle himself in his Meteors, and in the end of his Ethicks confesseth, that there is not any vertue either natural or morall, unless through God; & in his secret tenents, he affirmeth that our understanding being good and sound can do very much on the secrets of nature if so be that the influence of the Divine power be present, otherwise nothing at all: So also our words can do very many miracles, if they be formed by the word of God, in which also our universall generation is perfected, as Isay saith, by thy countenance O Lord, we have conceived, as women rightly conceive by the countenance of their husbands, and have brought forth spirit. Hither in some sort belongeth that which is delivered by the Gymnosophists of the Indians, viz. that Budda a prince of this opinion, brought forth a virgin out of his side; and amongst the Mahumetans [Mohammedans] there is a constant opinion, that many, whom in their tongues they call Nefesohli, are born by a certain occult manner of Divine dispensation without carnall copulation, whose life is therefore wonderfull and impassible and as it were Angelical and all together supernaturall; but these triffles we leave; only the King Messiah, the word of the father, made flesh, Christ Jesus hath revealed this secret, and will further manifest it at a certain fulness of time: therefore a mind very like to himself (as Lazarillus sang in Crater of Hermes.)

God gave man reason that like dieties [deities]
He might bring forth gods with capacity.
O happy he that knows his worth, and how
He equall is unto the gods above!
They represse dangers, make diseases flie,
They give presages, and from misery
Deliver men, reward the good, and ill
Chastise, and so the will of God fulfill;
These are Disciples, and the sons of God
Most High

Who are not born of the will of flesh, or of man, or of a menstruous woman, but of God: but it is an universall generation in which the Son is like the Father in all manner of similitude, and in the which, that which is begot is the same in specie with the begetter; and this is the power of the word formed by the mind, and received into a subject rightly disposed, as seed into the matrix for the generation; but I say disposed & rightly received; because that all are not partakers of the word after the same manner, but others otherwise; and these are the most hidden secrets of nature which ought not to be further published.

Chapter xxxvii. Of mans soul and through what means it is joyned [joined] to the body.

The soul of man is a certain divine Light, created after the image of the word, the cause of causes and first example, and the substance of God, figured by a seal whose Character is the eternall Word; also the soul of man is a certain divine substance, individuall and wholly present in every part of the body, so produced by an incorporeall Author, that it dependeth by the power of the Agent only, not by the bosome of the matter: The soul is a substantiall number, uniform, conversive unto it self, and rationall, very far excelling all bodies and materiall things; the partition of which is not according to the matter, nor proceeding from inferiour and grosser things, but from the efficient cause: For it is not a quantitative number, but removed from all corporeall Laws, whence it is not divided nor multiplyed by parts. Therefore the soul of man is a certain divine substance, flowing from a divine fountain, carrying along with it self number: not that divine one by the which the creator hath disposed all things, but a rational number by the which seeing it hath a proportion to all things, it can understand all things. Therefore mans soul being such, according to the opinion of the Platonists, immediately proceeding from God, is joynod by competent means to this grosser body; whence first of all in its descent, it is involved in a Celestiall and aeriall body, which they call the celestiall vehicle of the soul, others the chariot of the soul: Through this middle thing, by the command of God who is the center of the world, it is first infused into the middle point of the heart, which is the center of mans body, and from thence it is diffused through all the parts and members of his body, when it joyneth his chariot to the naturall heat, being a spirit generated from the heart by heat; by this it plungeth it self into the humours, by the which it inhereth in all the members, and to all these is made equally the nighest, although it be diffused through one to another; even as the heat of fire adhereth most nigh to the air and water, although it be transferred by the air to the water; thus it is manifest, how the immortal soul, by an immortall body, viz. an Etheriall vehicle, is included in a grosse and mortall body, but when by a disease or some mischief, these midle [middle] things are dissolved or fail, then the soul it self by these middle things recollecteth it self, and floweth back into the heart which was the first receptacle of the soul: but the spirit of the heart failing, and heat being extinct, it leaveth him, and man dieth, and the soul flieth away with this Celestial vehicle, and the Genius his keeper and the Demon follow it being gone forth, and carry it to the Judge, where sentence being pronounced, God quietly leadeth forth the good souls to glory: the evill the fierce devill draggeth to punishment.

Chapter xxxviii. What Divine gifts man receiveth from above, from the severall Orders of the Intelligences and the heavens.

By the seven Planets as it were by instruments, all powers are diffused into man from the Supream fountain of good: by Saturn a sublime contemplation & profound understanding, solidity of judgement, firm speculation, stability and an immoveable resolution: by Jupiter, an unshaken prudence, temperance, benignity, piety, modesty, Justice, Faith, Grace, Religion, equity, clemency, royalty; by Mars, truth; not to be terrified, constant courage and fortitude, a fervent desire of animosity, the power of acting and the practice, and an inconvertible vehemency of the mind. By the Sun, nobility of mind, perspicuity of imagination, the nature of knowledge and opinion, maturity, counsell, zeal, light of justice, reason and judgement distinguishing right from wrong, purging light from the darkness of ignorance, the glory of truth found out, and charity the Queen of all vertues: by Venus, a fervent love, most sweet hope, the motion of desire, order, concupiscence, beauty, sweetness, desire of encreasing and propagation of it self; by Mercury a piercing faith and belief, clear reasoning, the vigour of interpreting and pronouncing, gravity of speech, acuteness of wit, discourse of reason, and the swift motions of the senses: by the Moon a peace making consonancy, fecundity, the power of generation and of growing greater, of increasing and decreasing, and a moderate temperance, and faith which being conversant in manifest and occult things yeeldeth direction to all; also motion to the tilling of the earth for the manner of life and giving growth to it-self and others; but these influences are principally drawn from those seven intelligences, who stand before the face of God, who dispose the soul the seat of these vertues: but the planets dispose the body only, giving a tractable complexion proportioned and tempered for every good thing, and they are as it were the instruments of the Intelligences; but God as the primary cause doth yeeld both the influence & increase to all. They therefore who have sought out the vertues and divers dispositions of the soul, do judge, that they obtain diverse natures, by reason of the diversity of means, by the which they have a passage to us, and that these souls are not joyned with the bodies themselves unless they be proportioned by these Stars; So in a body brought to a temperament by Jupiter, they think that the soul infused is temperated by the power and intelligence of Jupiter, and so of the rest According to which disposition if the soul work well in this body, when its purged and expiated, it returneth to that divine power and Mansion from whence it descended. Furthermore, from the Angelicall orders man is strengthened with wonderfull vertues, viz. from the angels, that he may be a messenger of the divine will and an interpreter of the mind of God; from the Archangels, that he may rule over all beasts of the field, fish of the sea, and fowls of the air, over the which command is given him; from the Principalities, that all things may be subdued to him, he comprehending the powers of all, and drawing all powers to himself by a certain force most secret and supercelestiall; From the Vertues, it receiveth power, by the which it constantly fighting is strengthened against the enemies of truth, for the reward of which we run a race in this life; from the powers against the enemies of this earthly Tabernacle: [Latin reads, "a Potestatibus praesidium adversus humani huius domicilii inimicos"] from the Dominations, it hath help by the which we can subject any domestick enemy we carry along with us, and can obtain our desired end. From the Thrones, we are knit together, and being collected into our selves, we fix our memory on those eternall visions: From the Cherubins, is light of mind, power of wisdom, very high phantasies and figures, by the which we are able to contemplate even the divine things; From the Seraphins, that by the perfect flame of love we may at length inhere in them: These are the degrees, these the ladders, by the which men easily ascend to all kinds of powers by a certain naturall connexion and chariot, according to the diverse disposition of body and mind, and by the favour of the Stars, in the disposing of the body, and of the Intelligences ruling them, the nature of which the soul in its descense [descent] putteth on, even as light the colour of the glasse, through which it passeth; the supream [supreme] power of the Creator favouring, from whom is all good, and without which no good nor perfect thing can be obtained; Therefore all those do labour in vain, who trusting only on the course of nature, and the power and favour of inferiour things, do think to attain to divine things; and those who faining to have a foot in the heavens, do endeavour to receive those things from the favour of the heavens, which ought to be received from God alone; for these inferiors, I mean animals, Herbs, stones, metals, their power subservient to the heaven; but the heaven from the Intelligences; but these from God, in whom all things pre-exist in the greatest power; as in man the little world there is not a member which hath not correspondence with some element, plant, intelligence, and with some measure and numeration in the Archetype: as we have shewen before.

Chapter xxxix. How the superior Influences, seing they are good by nature, are depraved in these inferior thing, and are made causes of evil.

Seeing every power and vertue is from above, from God, from the Intelligences and Stars, who can neither erre nor do evill, it is necessary, that all evill, and whatsoever is found disagreeing and dissonant in these inferiour things, do proceed, not from the malice of the Influence, but from the evill disposition of the receiver; thus Chysippus rightly sang,

They do like fooles accuse the Gods falsly,
Make them the cause of all their misery,
When as their folly hurts themselves

Hence Jupiter calling to minde the case of Aegisthus slain by Orestes, by Homer in the counsel of the Gods, saith,

Us Gods do men accuse (what vice is this?)
To be the cause, fountain of what's amiss,
When they themselves by their own wickedness
Run into danger

When therefore the perversity of the subject receiveth the Influences of the perverse, or its debility cannot endure the efficacy of the superiors, then by the Influence of the heavens thus received into a matter full of discords, doth result something dissonant, deformed and evill; yet the celestiall powers alwaies remain good, which while they exist in themselves, and from the giver of light have their Influence by the holy Intelligences and the heavens, even till they shall come to the Moon, their Influence is good, as it were in the first degree; but then when it is received in a viler subject, it also is vilified; then also in respect of the different nature of the recipient it is received after diverse manners, and by the qualities disagreeing in the same subject amongst themselves, it also is varied and patiently suffreth in the subject; whence from all comprehended in the subject, at length some other thing doth result than the Superiors send down; therefore the hurtfull quality in these Inferiors, is far different from the influx of the heavens; and therefore as the distemper of the bleareyed, is not to be imputed to the light, nor burnings to the fire, nor wounds to the sword, nor fetters and Prisons to the Judge, but to the evill disposed and offenders; so neither is the fault of wicked ones to be cast on the celestial Influences: Therefore we being well disposed, the celestial influences cooperate all things for good; but being evill disposed, and having for our sins, that divine good, which was in us, departed from us, all things work for evill: therefore the cause of all our evills is sinne, which is the disorder and distemper of our soul; from the which then, thus evilly governing, or falling down or declining from that which the celestial influences require, all things rebel, and are distempered for our destruction: then in mans body, otherwise most temperate and composed with most sweet Harmony, the distemper of the Elements beginneth, evill humors [humours] arise: and even the good being disordered and severed from one another, by a certain vicissitude both vex and torment the body: then is a most vehement dissonance perceived, either by superfluity or diminution, or some intrinsecal accident, or by superfluous meat, whence superfluous humors are generated, and by the same cause infirmities follow; yea the animal spirits, the bridle being broken, do fall to contention. Then the celestial influences, otherwise of themselves good, are made hurtfull to us, even as the light of the sun to eyes ill disposed: Then Saturn darteth down anguish, tediousnes, melancholy, madnes, sadnes, obstinacy, rigidnes, blasphemy, desperation, lying, Apparitions, affrightments, walkings of the dead, stirrings of Divels [devils]: Jupiter then sendeth down covetousnes, evil occasions to get wealth, and tyranny: Mars, furious wrath, prophane [profane] arrogancy, violent boldness, fierce stubbornnes: but the Sun imperious pride, and insatiable ambition: Venus, the deceits of concupiscence, lascivious loves and filthy lusts: Mercury deceits, cousenages [cozenages], lyes [lies], subtile desires of evill, propensity to sin; The Moon the inconstant progress of all things, and whatsoever is contrary to mans nature: and by this means man himself by reason of his unlikeness with the heavenly things receiveth hurt, whence he ought to reap benefit: by reason of the same dissonancy with the heavenly things (as Proclus saith) men also are subjected even to wicked spirits who as the officers of God do discharge themselves in punishing them: Then do they suffer grievances by evill spirits, even untill they are again expiated, by due purgations, and man returneth to a divine nature: therefore an excellent Magitian [magician] can prohibite many mischifes [mischiefs] about to fall on him from the disposition of the Stars, when he foreknoweth their nature by preventing, taking heed, and defending, least they should meet him, and least an ill disposed subject, as we have said, should receive hurt whence it ought to reap benefit.

Chapter xl. That on every man a divine character is imprinted, by the vertue of which man can attain the working of miracles.

By no small experience it is found that a certain power of ruling and predominating is implanted in man by nature; for (Pliny testifieth) that an Elephant meeting a man wandring in a desart [desert], is reported to shew himself gentle and courteous, and to shew the way to him: and the same creature also is said, before he seeth man, to tremble, to stand still, to look about, to quake at the steps of man, for fear of treachery: in like manner the Tiger, the most fierce of all beasts, at the sight of man doth remove her yong [young] ones; and more of this kinde we read in divers authors, who have writ great volumes of creatures; but from whence do these animals know, that man is to be feared, whom they never saw: and if they have seen and known, whence do they fear him, seeing they do excell him in greatnes, force and swiftnes? what is this nature of man, striking this terror on wild beasts? all the Historiographers of animals do finde out and grant this, but have left to others to teach and prove it. Concerning this therefore Apollonius Tyaneus (as we read in Philostratus) seeing a child leading a huge Elephant, answerind Damus asking him, whence came that obedience of so huge a Creature to the little child: That it was from a certain active terror, implanted in man by his creator, which inferiour creatures and all animals perceiving do fear and reverence man, which is as it were a terrifying Character, and a seal of God imprinted on man, by the which every thing is subject to him, and acknowledges him superior, whither it be servant or animal. For otherwise neither could a child rule his herd and Elephants, neither could a King terrify his people, nor the Judge the guilty. Therefore this Character is imprinted on man from the divine Idea which the Cabalists of the Hebrew call Pahad ãçô and the left hand, or sword, of God: furthermore man hath not only a seal by which he is feared, but also by the which he is beloved, the Idea of which in the divine numerations is called Hesed ãñç which signifieth Clemency, & the right hand and Scepter of God: from these divine numerations, by the intelligences and Stars, Seals and Characters are imprinted on us to every one according to his capacity and purity: which signes the first man created, without doubt did possess in all integrity and fulness, when all creatures being attracted by secret gentlenes, and subjected by terror, came to him as to their lord, that he might give them names: but after the sin of prevarication he fell from that dignity with all his posterity; yet that Character is not all together extinct in us. But by how much every one is laden with sin, by so much he is farther off from these divine Characters and receiveth less of them; and whence he ought to receive frendship [friendship] and reverence, he falleth into the slavery and terror of others, both of animals and also men and devils: which Cain perceiving feared, saying to God, every one who findeth me, will kill me; for he feared beasts and devils, not only men, who were very few; but in the old times, many men who lived innocently, a very good life, as yet did enjoy that obedience and power, as Sampson, David and Daniel over the Lions, Elisha over the Bear, Paul over the Viper; and many Anchorites lived in the deserts, in Caves and Dens of wild beasts, not fearing, nor receiving any hurt; for as by sin that divine Character is obscured, so sin being purged and expiated, it again more and more shineth forth.

Chapter xli. What concerning man after death, diverse Opinions.

In generall it is appointed for all men once to dye [die]; death is fatall to all; but one is naturall, another violent, another voluntarily received, another inflicted by humane [human] lawes for offences, or by God for sin, that they seem not to have rendred a due to nature, but a punishment for sins; which (as the Hebrew Masters saith) God remitteth to none; Whence the Assembly delivered to Ezechiah, that after the house of the Sanctuary was pulled down, although there remained not any order of judiciary execution, yet there should he a four-fold kind of punishment by the which they might he condemned, that no man guilty of death should escape without retaliation; for he which had deserved to he stoned to death, was, God dispensing, either cast down headlong from the house, or trodden in peeces [pieces] by wild beasts, or overwhelmed by ruine or fall; but he which had deserved to be burned, was either consumed by burnings, or finished he life either by venemous [venomous] bitings, or stings of a serpent, or by poyson [poison]; but he which should dye [die] by the sword, was killed either by the violence of the jurisdiction, or by the tumult of the people or faction, or by the treachery of thieves; he that ought to be hanged, was suffocated either in the waters, or extinguished by some other strangling punishment; and by the ground of this doctrine, that great Origen supposed the Gospel of Christ to be declared, He who useth the sword shall perrish [perish] by sword. Moreover the Ethnick Philosophers pronounced that retaliation of this kinde is Adrastia, viz. an inevitable power of divine laws, by the which in courses to come, is recompensed to every one according to the reason and merits of his former life; so as he who unjustly ruled in the former life, in the other life should relapse into a servile state; he which hath polluted his hands with blood, should be compelled to undergo retaliation; he that lived a brutish life, should be precipitated and revolved into a brutish body; of these things Plotinus writeth in his book of the proper Genius of every one; saying, whosoever have kept humane propriety, do again arise men: but whosoever have used sense only, do return brute animals: yet so, as those who use sense especially together with wrath, do arise wild beasts; but whosoever use sense by concupisence and pleasure, do return lecherous and gluttenous [gluttonous] beasts: but if they shall live, not by sense together with them, so much as by the degeneration of sense, plants grow up again with them; for the vitals only, or chiefly, are living, & all their care was that they might be turned into plants. But they which have lived being too much allured by musick, not being depraved in other things, are born again musical animals; and they which have raigned [reigned] without reason, become Eagles, unles they have been tainted with any wickedness. But he which hath lived civilly and vertuously, returnes a man. And Solomon himself in the Proverbs calls man sometimes a Lion, Tiger, Bear, a Boare. Sometimes a Hare, a hunting dog, a Cony; sometimes a Pismire, a Hedghog [hedgehog], a Serpent, a Spider; sometimes an Eagle, a Stork, a Cock, or any other bird, and many such as these. But the Cabalists of the Hebrews do not admit that souls are turned into brutes: Yet they do not deny but that they that have wholly lost their reason, shall in an other life be left to a brutish affection and imagination: they assert also that souls are revolved hither thrice, and no more; because this number seems sufficiently to suffice for the purgation of sins, according to that of Job, He hath delivered my soul that it should not proceed to death, but should live, and see the light. Behold all these things doth God work three times through each, that he might reduce their souls from corruption, and illuminate them with the light of the living. But now let us see what the Ancients opinion is concerning the dead. When man dies, his body returnes into the earth, from which it was taken: the spirit returnes to the heavens, from whence it descended, as saith the Preacher, The body returnes to the earth from whence it was, & the spirit returnes to God that gave it; which Lucretius hath expressed in these verses;

What came from earth to earth returnes again;
What came from God, returnes from whence it came.

But Ovid expressed it better in these verses.

Four things of man there are; Spirit, Soul, Ghost, Flesh;
These four fowre places keep and do posess.
The earth covers flesh, the Ghost hovers o'er the grave.

Orcus hath the soul, Stars do the spirit crave;

The flesh being forsaken, & the body being defunct of life, is called a dead Carkass [carcass]; Which as say the divines of the Hebrews, is left in the power of the Demon Zazel, of whom it is said in the Scripture, Thou shalt eat dust all thy daies; and elswhere, The dust of the earth is his bread. Now man was created of the dust of the earth, whence also that Demon is called the Lord of flesh, and blood, whilest the body is not expiated and sanctified with due solemnities. Hence not without cause the Ancients ordained expiations of Carkasses [carcasses], that that which was unclean might be sprinkled with holy water, perfumed with incense, be conjured with sacred orations, have lights set by, as long as it was above ground, and then at length be buried in a holy place. Hence Elpenor in Homer, I beseech thee (saith he) Ulysses, be mindful of mee, and leave mee not unburied; lest being unburied I become an object of the Gods wrath. But the spirit of a man, which is of a sacred nature, and divine offspring, because it is alwaies faultless, becomes uncapable [incapable] of any punishment; But the soul if it hath done well, rejoyceth [rejoices] together with the spirit, and going forth with its Aerial Chariot, passeth freely to the quires of the Heroes, or reacheth heaven, where it enjoys all its senses, and powers, a perpetuall blessed felicity, a perfect knowledge of all things, as also the divine vision, and possession of the kingdom of heaven, and being made partaker of the divine power bestows freely divers gifts upon these inferiors, as if it were an immortal God. But if it hath done ill, the spirit judgeth it, and leaves it to the pleasure of the divel [Devil], and the sad soul wanders about Hell without a spirit, like an image, as Dido complaines in Virgil;

And now the great image of mee shall go
Under the earth

Wherefore then this soul being voyde [void] of an intelligible essence, and being left to the power of a furious phantasy, is ever subjected by the torment of corporeall qualities, knowing that it is by the just judgement of God, for ever deprived of the divine vision (to which it was created) for its sins: the absence of which divine vision, as the Scripture testifies, is the ground of all evils, and the most greivous [grievous] punishment of all, which the Scripture calls the pouring down of the wrath of God. This image therefore of the soul enters into the ghost as an Aerial body, with which being covered doth sometimes advise friends, sometimes stir up enemies, as Dido threatens Aeneas in Virgil saying,

I'll hunt thee, and thee tortures I will give.

For when the soul is separated from the body, the perturbations of the memory and sense remain. The Platonists say, that the souls, especially of them that are slain, stir up enemies, mans indignation not so much doing of it, as the divine Nemesis and Demon foreseeing, and permitting of it. So the spirit of Naboth (as the masters of the Hebrews interpret it) because in the end of its life it went forth with a desire of revenge, was made to execute revenge, the spirit of a lye [lie], and went forth, God permitting it, a lying spirit in the mouth of all the prophets, untill it made Achab go up unto Ramoth-Gilead. And Virgil himself together with the Pythagorians, and Platonists, to whom also our Austin [Augustine] assents, confesseth that separated souls retain the fresh memory of those things which they did in this life, and their will, whence he sings;

What care they Living had of horses brave
And Arms, the same doth follow them to th' grave.

And Agazel in his book De Scientia Divina, and other Arabians, and Mahumatists [Moslems] which were Philosophers, think that the operations of the soul, being common to the conjoyned [conjoined] body, impresse upon the soul a Character of use and exercise, which it being separated will use, being strongly impressed to the like operations and passions which were not destroyed in life time. And although the body and organ be corrupted, yet the operation will not cease, but like affections and dispositions will remain. And these souls the ancients call with a common name Manes, whereof those that were in this life innocent, and purifyed by morall vertues, were very happy; And of them as Virgil sings,

----- That did for their country die,
With priests who in their lives vow'd chastity,
And sacred poets, who pleas'd
Phoebus best,
Or by invented arts mans life assist,
And others in their memories renowned,

Although they departed this life without the justification of faith, and grace, as many Divines think, yet their souls were carryed without any suffering into happy pleasant fields; and as saith Virgil,

They went to places and to pleasant greens,
And pleasant seats the pleasant groves between.

Where they enjoy certain wonderfull pleasures, as also sensitive, intellectuall, and revealed knowledge; also perhaps they may be indoctrinated concerning faith, and justification, as those spirits long since to whom Christ preached the Gospel in prison. For as it is certain that none can be saved without the faith of Christ, so it is probable that this faith is preached to many Pagans and Saracens after this life, in those receptacles of souls unto salvation, and that they are kept in those receptacles, as in a common prison, untill the time comes when the great Judge shall examine our actions. To which opinion Lactantius, Ireneus, Clemens, Tertullian, Austin [Augustine], Ambrose, and many more Christian writers do assent. But those souls which are impure, incontinent, depart wicked, do not enjoy such happy dreams, but wander full of most hideous Phantasmes, and in worser places, enjoying no free knowledge but what is obtained by concession, or manifestation, and with a continuall fleshy desire are subjected by reason of their corporeall corruption to the sense of pain, and fear swords, and knives. These without doubt Homer seemed to be sensible of, when in the eleventh book of his Odyssey he brings in the mother of Ulysses being dead, standing near to him offering sacrifice, but neither knowing him or speaking to him, whilst he with his sword drawn did keep off ghosts from the blood of the sacrifice. But after that Tyresia the prophetess advising of her, she had tasted of the sacrifice, and had drunk the blood, she presently knew her son, and crying spake to him. But the soul of Tyresia the prophetesse, notwithstanding the drawn sword, even before she tasted the bloud [blood], knew Ulysses, and spake to him, and shewed him the ghost of his mother standing near to him. Whatsoever vices therefore souls have committed in the bodies unexpiated in this life, they are constrained, carrying the habits of them along with them, to purge themselves of them in hell, and to undergo punishment for them; which the Poet explains in these verses;

---------- When they die,
Then doth not leave them all their misery.
They having not repented of their crimes,
Must now he punish'd for their mispent times.

For as the manners and habits of men are in this life, such affections for the most part follow the soul after death, which then calls to mind those things which it did formerly do in its life, and then intently thinks on them, for as much as then the divers offices of life cease, as those of nourishing, growing, generating, and various occupations of senses, and humane affairs, and comforts, and obstacles of a grosser body. Then are nepreenated to the phantastick reason those species, which are so much the more turbulent and furious, by how much in such souls there lies hid an intellectuall spark more or lesse covered, or altogether extinct, into which are then by evil spirits conveyed species either most false, or terrible: whence now it is tormented in the concupiscile faculty, by the concupiscence of an imaginary good, or of those things which it did formerly affect in its life time, being deprived of the power of enjoying them, although it may seem to it self sometimes almost to obtain its delights, but to be driven from them by the evil spirits into bitter torments, as in the Poets, Tantalus from a banquet, Sardanapalus from embraces, Midas from gold, Sisyphus from power; and they called these souls hobgoblins, whereof if any taking care of household affairs lives and inhabits quietly in the house, it is called a houshold [household] god, or familiar. But they are most cruelly tortured in the irascible faculty with the hatred of an imaginary evil, into the perturbations whereof, as also false suspicions, and most horrible Phantasmes they then fall, and there are represented to them sad representations; sometimes of the heaven falling upon their head, sometimes of being consumed by the violence of flames, sometimes of being drowned in a gulfe, sometimes of being swallowed up into the earth, sometimes of being changed into divers kinds of beasts, sometimes of being torn and devoured by ugly monsters, sometimes of being carried abroad, through woods, seas, fire, air, and through fearfull infernall places, and sometimes of being taken, and tormented by devils. All which we conceive happens to them after death no otherwise then in this life to those who are taken with a phrensie, and some other melancholy distemper, or to those who are affighted with horrible things seen in dreams, and are thereby tormented, as if those things did really happen to them, which truely are not reall, but only species of them apprehended in imagination: even so do horrible representations of sins terrifie those souls after death as if they were in a dream, and the guilt of wickedness drives them headlong through divers places; which therefore Orpheus calls the people of dreams, saying, the gates of Pluto cannot be unlocked; within is a people of dreams; such wicked souls therefore enjoying no good places, when wandring [wandering] in an Aeriall body, they represent any form to our sight, are called hags, and goblins, inoffensive to them that are good, but hurtfull to the wicked, appearing one while in thinner bodies, another time in grosser, in the shape of divers animals, and monsters, whose conditions they had in their life time, as sings the Poet,

Then divers forms, and shapes of brutes appear;
For he becomes a tyger [tiger], swine, and bear,
A skalie [scaly] dragon, and a lionesse,
Or doth from fire a dreadfull noise expresse;
He doth transmute himself to divers looks,
To fire, wild beasts, and into running brooks.

For the impure soul of a man, who in this life contracted too great a habit to its body, doth by a certain inward affection of the elementall body frame another body to it self of the vapours of the elements, refreshing as it were from an easie matter as it were with a suck, that body which is continually vanishing; to which being moreover enslaved as to a prison, and sensible instrument by a certain divine Law, doth in it suffer cold, and heat, and whatsoever annoys the body, spirit, and sense, as stinks, howlings, wailings, gnashing of the teeth, stripes, tearings, and bonds, as Virgil sang;

----- And therefore for their crimes
They must be punish'd, and for mispent times
Must tortures feel; some in the winds are hung,
Others to cleanse their spotted sins are flung
Into vast gulfes, or purg'd in fire

And in Homer in his Necromancy Alcinous makes this relation to Ulysses,

Of Tytius the dear darling of the earth,
We saw the body stretch'd nine furlongs forth
And on each side of whom a vultur [vulture] great
Gnawing his bowel

These souls sometimes do inhabit not these kinds of bodies only, but by a too great affection of flesh and blood transmute themselves into other animals, and seize upon the bodies of creeping things, and brutes, entering into them, what kind soever they be of, possessing them like Demons. Pythagoras is of the same opinion, and before him Trismegistus, asserting that wicked souls do oftentimes go into creeping things, and into brutes, neither do they as essentiall forms vivifie [vivify] and inform those bodies, but as an inmate dwell there as in a prison, or stand neer them by a locall indistance as an internall mover to the thing moved; or being tyed to them are tormented, as Ixion to the wheel of serpents, Sysiphus to a stone; neither do they enter into brutes only, but sometimes into men, as we have spoken concerning the soul of Nabaoth which went forth a lying spirit in the mouth of the Prophets. Hence some have asserted that the lives, or spirits of wicked men going into the bodies of some men, have disturbed them, and sometimes slew them. Which is more fortunately granted unto blessed souls that like good Angels they should dwell in us, and enlighten us, as we read of Elias, that he being taken from men his spirit fell upon Elisha: and elsewhere we read that God took of the spirit which was in Moses, and gave it to 70. men. Here lies a great secret, and not rashly to be revealed. Sometimes also (which yet is very rare) souls are driven with such a madness that they do enter the bodies not only of the living, but also by a certain hellish power wander into dead Carkasses [carcasses], and being as it were revived commit horrid wickednesses, as we read in Saxo Grammaticus, that Asuitas and Asmundus, two certain men vowed one to the other, that he that should live longest should be buried with him that was first dead: at length Asuitus being first dead, is buried in a great vault with his dog, and horse, with whom also Asmundus by reason of his oath of friendship, suffered himself to be buried alive, (meat which he should for a long time eat, being brought to him); in processe of time Ericus King of Suecia, passing by that place with an army, breaking up the tomb of Asuitus (supposing that there was treasure) the vault being opened, brought forth Asmundus: whom, when he saw having a hideous look, being smeared over with filthy corrupt blood which flowed from a green wound (for Asuitus being revived, in the nights, took off with often struggling his right ear), he commanded him to tell him the cause of that wound: which he declares in these verses;

Why doth my visage wan you thus amaze?
Since he that lives amongst the dead, the grace
Of beauty needs must lose; I know not yet
What daring Stygian feind [fiend] of
The spirit sent from hell, who there did eat
A horse, and dog, and being with this meat
Not as yet suffic'd, then set his claws on me,
Pull'd off my cheek, mine ear, and hence you see
My ugly, wounded, mangled, bloody face;
This monstrous Wight returned not to his place
Without receiv'd revenge; I presently
His head cut off, and with a stake did I
His body thorough run

Pausanias tels a story not unlike to this, taken out of the interpreters of the Delphi; viz. that there was a certain infernall Demon, which they called Eurinomus, who would eat the flesh of dead men, and devour it so that the bones would scarce be left. We read also in the Chronicles of the Cretensians, that the ghosts which they call Catechanæ were wont to return back into their bodies, and go to their wives, and lie with them; for the avoyding of which, and that they might annoy their wives no more, it was provided in the common lawes that the heart of them that did arise should be thrust thorow with a nail, and their whole carcasse be burnt. These without doubt are wonderfull things, and scarce credible, but that those lawes, and ancient Histories make them credible. Neither is it altogether strange in Christian Religion that many souls were restored to their bodies, before the universall resurrection. Moreover we beleeve that many by the singular favour of God are together with their bodies received to glory, and that many went down alive to hell. And we have heard that oftentimes the bodies of the dead were by the devils taken from the graves, without doubt for no other use then to be imprisoned, and tomented in their hands. And to these prisons and bonds of their bodies there are added also the possessions of most filthy and abominable places, where are Aetnean fires, gulfes of water, the shakings of thunder, and lightening, gapings of the Earth, and where the region is void of light, and receives not the rayes of the Sun, and knows not the light of the Stars, but is alwayes dark. Whither Ulysses is reported in Homer to come, when he sings,

Here people are that be Cymmerian nam'd,
Drown'd in perpetuall darkness, it is fam'd,
Whom rising, nor the setwthng Sun doth see,
But with perpetuall night oppressed be.

Neither are those mere fables which many have recorded of the cave of Patricius, of the den of Vulcan of the Aetnean caves, and of the den of Nursia, many that have seen and known them testifying the same. Also Saxo Grammaticus tells of greater things then these of the Pallace of Geruthus, and of the cave of Ugarthilocus: Also Pliny, Solinus, Pythias, Clearchus, of the wonderfull prodigies of the Northern sea, of which Tacitus also in his history of Drusus shewes that in the German sea there wandred souldiers [wandered soldiers] by whom divers miraculous unheard of things were seen, viz. the force of whirlpools, unheard of kinds of birds, sea monsters like men and beasts; and in his book of Germany he tells that the Heldusians, and Axions, who had the face of men, but their other parts were equall to beasts, did dwell there. Which without all doubt were the works of ghosts and divels [devils]. Of these also Claudianus long time since sang,

In th' extream bounds of France there is a place,
Encompass'd by the sea, where in his race
Fame saith
Ulysses having tasted blood,
A secret people did descry, where loud
And mournfull plaints were heard of wandring spirits
Which did the country people much affright.

Aristotle relates of the Aeolian Ilands [Islands] neer Italy, that in Lipara was a certain tombe, to which no man could go safe by night, and that there were Cymbals and shrill voyces [voices] with certain absurd loud laughter; also tumults and empty sounds made, as the inhabitants did strongly aver; and that upon a time a certain yong [young] man being drunk went thither, and about night fell asleep neer the cave of the tombe, and was after the third day found by them that sought him, and was taken up for dead; who being brought forth, the solemnities of the funerall being ready, suddainly arose up, and told in order, to the great admiration of all, many things which he had seen and suffered. There is also in Norvegia [Norway] a certain mountain most dreadfull to all, cirrounded [surrounded] by the sea, which commonly is called Hethelbergius, representing Hell, whence there are heard great bewailings, howlings, and scritchings [screechings] a mile round about, and over which great vulters [vultures] and most black Crows fly, making most horrible noyses [noises], which forbid any to come neer it: Moreover from hence flow two fountaines whereof the one is most intense cold, the other most intense hot, far exceeding all other elements. There is also in the same country toward the Southern corner thereof a Promontory called Nadhegrin, where the Demons of the place are seen by all, in an aeriall body. There is also in Scotland the Mountain Dolorosus, from whence are heard dreadfull lamentations: and in Thuringia there is a mountain called Horrisonus, where dwelt Sylvani, and Satyrs, as fame and experience teacheth, and faithfull writers testifie. There are in divers Countries and Provinces such like miracles as these. I will not relate here those things which I have seen with mine eyes, and felt with mine hands, least by the wonderfull admirablenes and strangeness of them I should by the incredulous be accounted a lyar [liar]. Neither do I think it fit to pass by what many of our age think concerning the receptacles of souls, not much differing from these which we have now spoken of: of which Tertullian in his fourth book against the heresies of Marcion saith, it is apparent to every wise man, which hath ever heard of the Elysian fields that there is some locall determination, (which is called Abrahams bosome) for the receiving of the souls of his sons, and that that region is not celestial, yet higher then hell, where the souls of the just rest, untill the consummation of things restore the resurrection of all things with fulnes of reward. Also Peter the Apostle saith to Clemens a king him of these things, thou dost constrain mee O Clemens to publish something conceming things unutterable: Yet as far as I may, I will. Christ, who from the beginning, & alwaies was, was alwaies through each generation, though secretly, present with the godly, with those especially by whom he was desired, and to whom he did most often appear. But it was not time, that the bodies then being resolved, there should be a resurrection: but this rather seemed a remuneration from God, that he that was found just, should remain longer in a body: or that the Lord should translate him (as we see clearly related in the Scripture of some certain iust men). After the like example God dealt with others, who pleased him well, and fullfilling his will were being translated to Paradise reserved for a kingdome. But of those who could not fullfill the rule of justice, but had some relique [relic] of wickedness in their flesh, the bodyes indeed are resolved, but souls are kept in good and pleasant regions, that in the resurrection of the dead, when they shall receive their bodies, being now purged by resolution, they may enjoy an eternall inheritance for those things which they have done well. Ireneus also in the end of his book which he wrot [wrote] against the Heresies of the Valentinians, saith: Whereas the Lord went in the middle of the shadow of death, where the souls of the dead were, and after rose again corporeally, and after resurrection was taken up, it is manifest that the souls of his disciples (for whom he worked these things) should go to some invisible place, appoynted by God, and there tarry untill the resurrection, afterwards receiving their bodyes, and rising again perfectly, i.e. corporeally, as the Lord arose, so shall they come into the presence of God; for no disciple is above his Master; But every one shall be perfect as his Master. Therefore even as our Master did not presently fly and go away, but expected the time of his resurrection determined by the father, which is also manifested by Jonas, after three daies [days] arising he is taken up; So also ought we to expect the time or our resurrection determined by God, foretold by the Prophets; and so rising again we shall be taken up, as many as the Lord shall account worthy of this honour; Lactantius Firmianus also agreeth to this, in that book of Divine institutions, whose title is of Divine reward; Saying, let no man think, that the souls after death are presently judged; for they are all detained in one common custody, untill the time cometh in which the great Judge shall examine deserts; then they whose righteousness shall be approved, shall receive the reward of immortality: but they whose sins and wickednes are detected, shall not rise again, but being destinated for certain punishment, shal be shut up with the wicked angels into the same darknes; of the same opinion are Austine [Augustine], and Ambrose, who sayth in his Enchiridion, The time which is interposed betwixt the death of man and the last resurrection, containeth the soul in secret receptacles: as everyone is worthy of rest or sorrow, according to that which it obtained whilst it lived in the flesh; but Ambrose in his book concerning the benefits of death, saith; The writing of Esdras calleth the habitations of the souls, store houses; which be meting with the complaints of man (because that the Just who have gone before, may seem, even to the day of Judgement viz. for a long time, to be wonderfully defrauded of their just recompense of reward) doth liken the day of judgement to a garland; for the day of reward is expected of all, that in the mean time both the conquered may be ashamed, and the conquerors may attain the palme of victory; therefore while the fulnes of time is expected, the souls expect their due recompense; punishment remaining for some, glory for others; and in the same place he calleth Hell a place which is not seen, which the souls go to being separated from the bodies; And in his second book of Cain and Abel, he saith, the soul is loosed from the body, and after the end of this life, is even as yet in suspence, being doubtfull of the judgement to come; To these assenteth that evangelical saying, concerning the last judgement, Christ saying in Matthew: Many shall say to mee in that day, Lord, lord, have we not prophesied in thy name, and in thy name cast out Devils? And then I shall confess to them, that I never knew them; by which speech it seemeth to be clear, that even untill this day they were uncertain concerning their sentence, and by the confidence of miracles which they had performed in the name of Jesus, whilst they lived, to have bin in some hope of salvation; Therefore because the judgement of souls is deferred untill the last day, many Theologians think that satisfactory intercessions may help not only the Justified, but also the damned, before the appoynted day of iudgment [Judgement]. So Trajan the Emperor was delivered from Hell by Saint Gregory, and Justified to salvation, though some think that he was not freed from the guilt of punishment, but the Justice of punishment was prorogued [prolonged] untill the day of iudgment; But Thomas Aquinas saith it seemeth more probable, that by the intercessions of S. Gregory, Trajan lived again, and obtained a gracious power by the which he was freed from the punishment and guilt of sin; and there are some Theologians who think, that by the Dirges for the dead neither the punishment nor the guilt is taken away or detracted, but that only some ease and asswagement of the pains is procured; and this by the similitude of a sweating porter, who by the sprinkling of some water seemeth to be eased of the weight of his burthen [burden], or helped to carry it more easily, although nothing of the burthen be taken off: Yet the common opinion of Theologians denyeth that prayers or funerall Diriges do cause any favour for the guilty within the gates of Pluto: but seeing all these things are of an incomprehensible obscurity, many have vainly whet their wits on them: Therefore we holding to the opinion of Austine [Augustine], as he saith in the tenth book on Genesis, do affirm, That it is better to doubt concerning occult things, then to contend about uncertain things; for I doubt not but that that rich man is to be understood in the flames of pains, and that poor man in the refreshment of joyes; but how that flame of hell, that bosom of Abraham, that tongue of the rich man, that torment of thirst, that drop of cooling, are to be understood, it is hardly found out by the modest searcher, but by the contentious never; but these things being for this present omitted, we hasten to further matters and will dispute concerning the restitution of souls.

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